kstratis kstratis - 23 days ago 6
Linux Question

eval command in Bash and its typical uses

After reading the bash man pages and with respect to this post.

I am still having trouble understanding what exactly the

eval
command does and which would be its typical uses. For example if we do:

bash$ set -- one two three # sets $1 $2 $3
bash$ echo $1
one
bash$ n=1
bash$ echo ${$n} ## First attempt to echo $1 using brackets fails
bash: ${$n}: bad substitution
bash$ echo $($n) ## Second attempt to echo $1 using parentheses fails
bash: 1: command not found
bash$ eval echo \${$n} ## Third attempt to echo $1 using 'eval' succeeds
one


What exactly is happening here and how do the dollar sign and the backslash tie into the problem?

Answer

eval takes a string as its argument, and evaluates it as if you'd typed that string on a command line. (If you pass several arguments, they are first joined with spaces between them.)

${$n} is a syntax error in bash. Inside the braces, you can only have a variable name, with some possible prefix and suffixes, but you can't have arbitrary bash syntax and in particular you can't use variable expansion. There is a way of saying “the value of the variable whose name is in this variable”, though:

echo ${!n}
one

$(…) runs the command specified inside the parentheses in a subshell (i.e. in a separate process that inherits all settings such as variable values from the current shell), and gathers its output. So echo $($n) runs $n as a shell command, and displays its output. Since $n evaluates to 1, $($n) attempts to run the command 1, which does not exist.

eval echo \${$n} runs the parameters passed to eval. After expansion, the parameters are echo and ${1}. So eval echo \${$n} runs the command echo ${1}.

Note that most of the time, you must use double quotes around variable substitutions and command susbtitutions (i.e. anytime there's a $): "$foo", "$(foo)". Always put double quotes around variable and command substitutions, unless you know you need to leave them off. Without the double quotes, the shell performs field splitting (i.e. it splits value of the variable or the output from the command into separate words) and then treats each word as a wildcard pattern. For example:

$ ls
file1 file2 otherfile
$ set -- 'f* *'
$ echo "$1"
f* *
$ echo $1
file1 file2 file1 file2 otherfile
$ n=1
$ eval echo \${$n}
file1 file2 file1 file2 otherfile
$eval echo \"\${$n}\"
f* *
$ echo "${!n}"
f* *

eval is not used very often. In some shells, the most common use is to obtain the value of a variable whose name is not known until runtime. In bash, this is not necessary thanks to the ${!VAR} syntax. eval is still useful when you need to construct a longer command containing operators, reserved words, etc.