Kip Kip - 15 days ago 6
Java Question

Fastest way to determine if an integer's square root is an integer

I'm looking for the fastest way to determine if a

long
value is a perfect square (i.e. its square root is another integer). I've done it the easy way, by using the built-in Math.sqrt() function, but I'm wondering if there is a way to do it faster by restricting yourself to integer-only domain. Maintaining a lookup table is impratical (since there are about 231.5 integers whose square is less than 263).

Here is the very simple and straightforward way I'm doing it now:

public final static boolean isPerfectSquare(long n)
{
if (n < 0)
return false;

long tst = (long)(Math.sqrt(n) + 0.5);
return tst*tst == n;
}





Notes: I'm using this function in many Project Euler problems. So no one else will ever have to maintain this code. And this kind of micro-optimization could actually make a difference, since part of the challenge is to do every algorithm in less than a minute, and this function will need to be called millions of times in some problems.




Update 2: A new solution posted by A. Rex has proven to be even faster. In a run over the first 1 billion integers, the solution only required 34% of the time that the original solution used. While the John Carmack hack is a little better for small values of n, the benefit compared to this solution is pretty small.

Here is the A. Rex solution, converted to Java:

private final static boolean isPerfectSquare(long n)
{
// Quickfail
if( n < 0 || ((n&2) != 0) || ((n & 7) == 5) || ((n & 11) == 8) )
return false;
if( n == 0 )
return true;

// Check mod 255 = 3 * 5 * 17, for fun
long y = n;
y = (y & 0xffffffffL) + (y >> 32);
y = (y & 0xffffL) + (y >> 16);
y = (y & 0xffL) + ((y >> 8) & 0xffL) + (y >> 16);
if( bad255[(int)y] )
return false;

// Divide out powers of 4 using binary search
if((n & 0xffffffffL) == 0)
n >>= 32;
if((n & 0xffffL) == 0)
n >>= 16;
if((n & 0xffL) == 0)
n >>= 8;
if((n & 0xfL) == 0)
n >>= 4;
if((n & 0x3L) == 0)
n >>= 2;

if((n & 0x7L) != 1)
return false;

// Compute sqrt using something like Hensel's lemma
long r, t, z;
r = start[(int)((n >> 3) & 0x3ffL)];
do {
z = n - r * r;
if( z == 0 )
return true;
if( z < 0 )
return false;
t = z & (-z);
r += (z & t) >> 1;
if( r > (t >> 1) )
r = t - r;
} while( t <= (1L << 33) );
return false;
}

private static boolean[] bad255 =
{
false,false,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,
true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,false,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,
true ,false,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,
true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,false,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,
false,true ,false,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,
true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,
false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,false,
true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,
true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,false,
false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,
true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,
true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,false,true ,false,true ,true ,
false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,
true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,
true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,false,true ,true ,true ,true ,true ,
true ,true ,true ,false,false
};

private static int[] start =
{
1,3,1769,5,1937,1741,7,1451,479,157,9,91,945,659,1817,11,
1983,707,1321,1211,1071,13,1479,405,415,1501,1609,741,15,339,1703,203,
129,1411,873,1669,17,1715,1145,1835,351,1251,887,1573,975,19,1127,395,
1855,1981,425,453,1105,653,327,21,287,93,713,1691,1935,301,551,587,
257,1277,23,763,1903,1075,1799,1877,223,1437,1783,859,1201,621,25,779,
1727,573,471,1979,815,1293,825,363,159,1315,183,27,241,941,601,971,
385,131,919,901,273,435,647,1493,95,29,1417,805,719,1261,1177,1163,
1599,835,1367,315,1361,1933,1977,747,31,1373,1079,1637,1679,1581,1753,1355,
513,1539,1815,1531,1647,205,505,1109,33,1379,521,1627,1457,1901,1767,1547,
1471,1853,1833,1349,559,1523,967,1131,97,35,1975,795,497,1875,1191,1739,
641,1149,1385,133,529,845,1657,725,161,1309,375,37,463,1555,615,1931,
1343,445,937,1083,1617,883,185,1515,225,1443,1225,869,1423,1235,39,1973,
769,259,489,1797,1391,1485,1287,341,289,99,1271,1701,1713,915,537,1781,
1215,963,41,581,303,243,1337,1899,353,1245,329,1563,753,595,1113,1589,
897,1667,407,635,785,1971,135,43,417,1507,1929,731,207,275,1689,1397,
1087,1725,855,1851,1873,397,1607,1813,481,163,567,101,1167,45,1831,1205,
1025,1021,1303,1029,1135,1331,1017,427,545,1181,1033,933,1969,365,1255,1013,
959,317,1751,187,47,1037,455,1429,609,1571,1463,1765,1009,685,679,821,
1153,387,1897,1403,1041,691,1927,811,673,227,137,1499,49,1005,103,629,
831,1091,1449,1477,1967,1677,697,1045,737,1117,1737,667,911,1325,473,437,
1281,1795,1001,261,879,51,775,1195,801,1635,759,165,1871,1645,1049,245,
703,1597,553,955,209,1779,1849,661,865,291,841,997,1265,1965,1625,53,
1409,893,105,1925,1297,589,377,1579,929,1053,1655,1829,305,1811,1895,139,
575,189,343,709,1711,1139,1095,277,993,1699,55,1435,655,1491,1319,331,
1537,515,791,507,623,1229,1529,1963,1057,355,1545,603,1615,1171,743,523,
447,1219,1239,1723,465,499,57,107,1121,989,951,229,1521,851,167,715,
1665,1923,1687,1157,1553,1869,1415,1749,1185,1763,649,1061,561,531,409,907,
319,1469,1961,59,1455,141,1209,491,1249,419,1847,1893,399,211,985,1099,
1793,765,1513,1275,367,1587,263,1365,1313,925,247,1371,1359,109,1561,1291,
191,61,1065,1605,721,781,1735,875,1377,1827,1353,539,1777,429,1959,1483,
1921,643,617,389,1809,947,889,981,1441,483,1143,293,817,749,1383,1675,
63,1347,169,827,1199,1421,583,1259,1505,861,457,1125,143,1069,807,1867,
2047,2045,279,2043,111,307,2041,597,1569,1891,2039,1957,1103,1389,231,2037,
65,1341,727,837,977,2035,569,1643,1633,547,439,1307,2033,1709,345,1845,
1919,637,1175,379,2031,333,903,213,1697,797,1161,475,1073,2029,921,1653,
193,67,1623,1595,943,1395,1721,2027,1761,1955,1335,357,113,1747,1497,1461,
1791,771,2025,1285,145,973,249,171,1825,611,265,1189,847,1427,2023,1269,
321,1475,1577,69,1233,755,1223,1685,1889,733,1865,2021,1807,1107,1447,1077,
1663,1917,1129,1147,1775,1613,1401,555,1953,2019,631,1243,1329,787,871,885,
449,1213,681,1733,687,115,71,1301,2017,675,969,411,369,467,295,693,
1535,509,233,517,401,1843,1543,939,2015,669,1527,421,591,147,281,501,
577,195,215,699,1489,525,1081,917,1951,2013,73,1253,1551,173,857,309,
1407,899,663,1915,1519,1203,391,1323,1887,739,1673,2011,1585,493,1433,117,
705,1603,1111,965,431,1165,1863,533,1823,605,823,1179,625,813,2009,75,
1279,1789,1559,251,657,563,761,1707,1759,1949,777,347,335,1133,1511,267,
833,1085,2007,1467,1745,1805,711,149,1695,803,1719,485,1295,1453,935,459,
1151,381,1641,1413,1263,77,1913,2005,1631,541,119,1317,1841,1773,359,651,
961,323,1193,197,175,1651,441,235,1567,1885,1481,1947,881,2003,217,843,
1023,1027,745,1019,913,717,1031,1621,1503,867,1015,1115,79,1683,793,1035,
1089,1731,297,1861,2001,1011,1593,619,1439,477,585,283,1039,1363,1369,1227,
895,1661,151,645,1007,1357,121,1237,1375,1821,1911,549,1999,1043,1945,1419,
1217,957,599,571,81,371,1351,1003,1311,931,311,1381,1137,723,1575,1611,
767,253,1047,1787,1169,1997,1273,853,1247,413,1289,1883,177,403,999,1803,
1345,451,1495,1093,1839,269,199,1387,1183,1757,1207,1051,783,83,423,1995,
639,1155,1943,123,751,1459,1671,469,1119,995,393,219,1743,237,153,1909,
1473,1859,1705,1339,337,909,953,1771,1055,349,1993,613,1393,557,729,1717,
511,1533,1257,1541,1425,819,519,85,991,1693,503,1445,433,877,1305,1525,
1601,829,809,325,1583,1549,1991,1941,927,1059,1097,1819,527,1197,1881,1333,
383,125,361,891,495,179,633,299,863,285,1399,987,1487,1517,1639,1141,
1729,579,87,1989,593,1907,839,1557,799,1629,201,155,1649,1837,1063,949,
255,1283,535,773,1681,461,1785,683,735,1123,1801,677,689,1939,487,757,
1857,1987,983,443,1327,1267,313,1173,671,221,695,1509,271,1619,89,565,
127,1405,1431,1659,239,1101,1159,1067,607,1565,905,1755,1231,1299,665,373,
1985,701,1879,1221,849,627,1465,789,543,1187,1591,923,1905,979,1241,181
};





Update: I've tried the different solutions presented below.


  • After exhaustive testing, I found that adding
    0.5
    to the result of Math.sqrt() is not necessary, at least not on my machine.

  • The John Carmack hack was faster, but it gave incorrect results starting at n=410881. However, as suggested by BobbyShaftoe, we can use the Carmack hack for n < 410881.

  • Newton's method was a good bit slower than
    Math.sqrt()
    . This is probably because
    Math.sqrt()
    uses something similar to Newton's Method, but implemented in the hardware so it's much faster than in Java. Also, Newton's Method still required use of doubles.

  • A modified Newton's method, which used a few tricks so that only integer math was involved, required some hacks to avoid overflow (I want this function to work with all positive 64-bit signed integers), and it was still slower than
    Math.sqrt()
    .

  • Binary chop was even slower. This makes sense because the binary chop will on average require 16 passes to find the square root of a 64-bit number.



The one suggestion which did show improvements was made by John D. Cook. You can observe that the last hex digit (i.e. the last 4 bits) of a perfect square must be 0, 1, 4, or 9. This means that 75% of numbers can be immediately eliminated as possible squares. Implementing this solution resulted in about a 50% reduction in runtime.

Working from John's suggestion, I investigated properties of the last n bits of a perfect square. By analyzing the last 6 bits, I found that only 12 out of 64 values are possible for the last 6 bits. This means 81% of values can be eliminated without using any math. Implementing this solution gave an additional 8% reduction in runtime (compared to my original algorithm). Analyzing more than 6 bits results in a list of possible ending bits which is too large to be practical.

Here is the code that I have used, which runs in 42% of the time required by the original algorithm (based on a run over the first 100 million integers). For values of n less than 410881, it runs in only 29% of the time required by the original algorithm.

private final static boolean isPerfectSquare(long n)
{
if (n < 0)
return false;

switch((int)(n & 0x3F))
{
case 0x00: case 0x01: case 0x04: case 0x09: case 0x10: case 0x11:
case 0x19: case 0x21: case 0x24: case 0x29: case 0x31: case 0x39:
long sqrt;
if(n < 410881L)
{
//John Carmack hack, converted to Java.
// See: http://www.codemaestro.com/reviews/9
int i;
float x2, y;

x2 = n * 0.5F;
y = n;
i = Float.floatToRawIntBits(y);
i = 0x5f3759df - ( i >> 1 );
y = Float.intBitsToFloat(i);
y = y * ( 1.5F - ( x2 * y * y ) );

sqrt = (long)(1.0F/y);
}
else
{
//Carmack hack gives incorrect answer for n >= 410881.
sqrt = (long)Math.sqrt(n);
}
return sqrt*sqrt == n;

default:
return false;
}
}


Notes:


  • According to John's tests, using
    or
    statements is faster in C++ than using a
    switch
    , but in Java and C# there appears to be no difference between
    or
    and
    switch
    .

  • I also tried making a lookup table (as a private static array of 64 boolean values). Then instead of either switch or
    or
    statement, I would just say
    if(lookup[(int)(n&0x3F)]) { test } else return false;
    . To my surprise, this was (just slightly) slower. I'm not sure why. This is because array bounds are checked in Java.


Answer

I figured out a method that works ~35% faster than your 6bits+Carmack+sqrt code, at least with my CPU (x86) and programming language (C/C++). Your results may vary, especially because I don't know how the Java factor will play out.

My approach is threefold:

  1. First, filter out obvious answers. This includes negative numbers and looking at the last 4 bits. (I found looking at the last six didn't help.) I also answer yes for 0. (In reading the code below, note that my input is int64 x.)
    if( x < 0 || (x&2) || ((x & 7) == 5) || ((x & 11) == 8) )
        return false;
    if( x == 0 )
        return true;
  2. Next, check if it's a square modulo 255 = 3 * 5 * 17. Because that's a product of three distinct primes, only about 1/8 of the residues mod 255 are squares. However, in my experience, calling the modulo operator (%) costs more than the benefit one gets, so I use bit tricks involving 255 = 2^8-1 to compute the residue. (For better or worse, I am not using the trick of reading individual bytes out of a word, only bitwise-and and shifts.)
    int64 y = x;
    y = (y & 4294967295LL) + (y >> 32); 
    y = (y & 65535) + (y >> 16);
    y = (y & 255) + ((y >> 8) & 255) + (y >> 16);
    // At this point, y is between 0 and 511.  More code can reduce it farther.
    
    To actually check if the residue is a square, I look up the answer in a precomputed table.
    if( bad255[y] )
        return false;
    // However, I just use a table of size 512
    
  3. Finally, try to compute the square root using a method similar to Hensel's lemma. (I don't think it's applicable directly, but it works with some modifications.) Before doing that, I divide out all powers of 2 with a binary search:
    if((x & 4294967295LL) == 0)
        x >>= 32;
    if((x & 65535) == 0)
        x >>= 16;
    if((x & 255) == 0)
        x >>= 8;
    if((x & 15) == 0)
        x >>= 4;
    if((x & 3) == 0)
        x >>= 2;
    At this point, for our number to be a square, it must be 1 mod 8.
    if((x & 7) != 1)
        return false;
    The basic structure of Hensel's lemma is the following. (Note: untested code; if it doesn't work, try t=2 or 8.)
    int64 t = 4, r = 1;
    t <<= 1; r += ((x - r * r) & t) >> 1;
    t <<= 1; r += ((x - r * r) & t) >> 1;
    t <<= 1; r += ((x - r * r) & t) >> 1;
    // Repeat until t is 2^33 or so.  Use a loop if you want.
    The idea is that at each iteration, you add one bit onto r, the "current" square root of x; each square root is accurate modulo a larger and larger power of 2, namely t/2. At the end, r and t/2-r will be square roots of x modulo t/2. (Note that if r is a square root of x, then so is -r. This is true even modulo numbers, but beware, modulo some numbers, things can have even more than 2 square roots; notably, this includes powers of 2.) Because our actual square root is less than 2^32, at that point we can actually just check if r or t/2-r are real square roots. In my actual code, I use the following modified loop:
    int64 r, t, z;
    r = start[(x >> 3) & 1023];
    do {
        z = x - r * r;
        if( z == 0 )
            return true;
        if( z < 0 )
            return false;
        t = z & (-z);
        r += (z & t) >> 1;
        if( r > (t >> 1) )
            r = t - r;
    } while( t <= (1LL << 33) );
    The speedup here is obtained in three ways: precomputed start value (equivalent to ~10 iterations of the loop), earlier exit of the loop, and skipping some t values. For the last part, I look at z = r - x * x, and set t to be the largest power of 2 dividing z with a bit trick. This allows me to skip t values that wouldn't have affected the value of r anyway. The precomputed start value in my case picks out the "smallest positive" square root modulo 8192.

Even if this code doesn't work faster for you, I hope you enjoy some of the ideas it contains. Complete, tested code follows, including the precomputed tables.

typedef signed long long int int64;

int start[1024] =
{1,3,1769,5,1937,1741,7,1451,479,157,9,91,945,659,1817,11,
1983,707,1321,1211,1071,13,1479,405,415,1501,1609,741,15,339,1703,203,
129,1411,873,1669,17,1715,1145,1835,351,1251,887,1573,975,19,1127,395,
1855,1981,425,453,1105,653,327,21,287,93,713,1691,1935,301,551,587,
257,1277,23,763,1903,1075,1799,1877,223,1437,1783,859,1201,621,25,779,
1727,573,471,1979,815,1293,825,363,159,1315,183,27,241,941,601,971,
385,131,919,901,273,435,647,1493,95,29,1417,805,719,1261,1177,1163,
1599,835,1367,315,1361,1933,1977,747,31,1373,1079,1637,1679,1581,1753,1355,
513,1539,1815,1531,1647,205,505,1109,33,1379,521,1627,1457,1901,1767,1547,
1471,1853,1833,1349,559,1523,967,1131,97,35,1975,795,497,1875,1191,1739,
641,1149,1385,133,529,845,1657,725,161,1309,375,37,463,1555,615,1931,
1343,445,937,1083,1617,883,185,1515,225,1443,1225,869,1423,1235,39,1973,
769,259,489,1797,1391,1485,1287,341,289,99,1271,1701,1713,915,537,1781,
1215,963,41,581,303,243,1337,1899,353,1245,329,1563,753,595,1113,1589,
897,1667,407,635,785,1971,135,43,417,1507,1929,731,207,275,1689,1397,
1087,1725,855,1851,1873,397,1607,1813,481,163,567,101,1167,45,1831,1205,
1025,1021,1303,1029,1135,1331,1017,427,545,1181,1033,933,1969,365,1255,1013,
959,317,1751,187,47,1037,455,1429,609,1571,1463,1765,1009,685,679,821,
1153,387,1897,1403,1041,691,1927,811,673,227,137,1499,49,1005,103,629,
831,1091,1449,1477,1967,1677,697,1045,737,1117,1737,667,911,1325,473,437,
1281,1795,1001,261,879,51,775,1195,801,1635,759,165,1871,1645,1049,245,
703,1597,553,955,209,1779,1849,661,865,291,841,997,1265,1965,1625,53,
1409,893,105,1925,1297,589,377,1579,929,1053,1655,1829,305,1811,1895,139,
575,189,343,709,1711,1139,1095,277,993,1699,55,1435,655,1491,1319,331,
1537,515,791,507,623,1229,1529,1963,1057,355,1545,603,1615,1171,743,523,
447,1219,1239,1723,465,499,57,107,1121,989,951,229,1521,851,167,715,
1665,1923,1687,1157,1553,1869,1415,1749,1185,1763,649,1061,561,531,409,907,
319,1469,1961,59,1455,141,1209,491,1249,419,1847,1893,399,211,985,1099,
1793,765,1513,1275,367,1587,263,1365,1313,925,247,1371,1359,109,1561,1291,
191,61,1065,1605,721,781,1735,875,1377,1827,1353,539,1777,429,1959,1483,
1921,643,617,389,1809,947,889,981,1441,483,1143,293,817,749,1383,1675,
63,1347,169,827,1199,1421,583,1259,1505,861,457,1125,143,1069,807,1867,
2047,2045,279,2043,111,307,2041,597,1569,1891,2039,1957,1103,1389,231,2037,
65,1341,727,837,977,2035,569,1643,1633,547,439,1307,2033,1709,345,1845,
1919,637,1175,379,2031,333,903,213,1697,797,1161,475,1073,2029,921,1653,
193,67,1623,1595,943,1395,1721,2027,1761,1955,1335,357,113,1747,1497,1461,
1791,771,2025,1285,145,973,249,171,1825,611,265,1189,847,1427,2023,1269,
321,1475,1577,69,1233,755,1223,1685,1889,733,1865,2021,1807,1107,1447,1077,
1663,1917,1129,1147,1775,1613,1401,555,1953,2019,631,1243,1329,787,871,885,
449,1213,681,1733,687,115,71,1301,2017,675,969,411,369,467,295,693,
1535,509,233,517,401,1843,1543,939,2015,669,1527,421,591,147,281,501,
577,195,215,699,1489,525,1081,917,1951,2013,73,1253,1551,173,857,309,
1407,899,663,1915,1519,1203,391,1323,1887,739,1673,2011,1585,493,1433,117,
705,1603,1111,965,431,1165,1863,533,1823,605,823,1179,625,813,2009,75,
1279,1789,1559,251,657,563,761,1707,1759,1949,777,347,335,1133,1511,267,
833,1085,2007,1467,1745,1805,711,149,1695,803,1719,485,1295,1453,935,459,
1151,381,1641,1413,1263,77,1913,2005,1631,541,119,1317,1841,1773,359,651,
961,323,1193,197,175,1651,441,235,1567,1885,1481,1947,881,2003,217,843,
1023,1027,745,1019,913,717,1031,1621,1503,867,1015,1115,79,1683,793,1035,
1089,1731,297,1861,2001,1011,1593,619,1439,477,585,283,1039,1363,1369,1227,
895,1661,151,645,1007,1357,121,1237,1375,1821,1911,549,1999,1043,1945,1419,
1217,957,599,571,81,371,1351,1003,1311,931,311,1381,1137,723,1575,1611,
767,253,1047,1787,1169,1997,1273,853,1247,413,1289,1883,177,403,999,1803,
1345,451,1495,1093,1839,269,199,1387,1183,1757,1207,1051,783,83,423,1995,
639,1155,1943,123,751,1459,1671,469,1119,995,393,219,1743,237,153,1909,
1473,1859,1705,1339,337,909,953,1771,1055,349,1993,613,1393,557,729,1717,
511,1533,1257,1541,1425,819,519,85,991,1693,503,1445,433,877,1305,1525,
1601,829,809,325,1583,1549,1991,1941,927,1059,1097,1819,527,1197,1881,1333,
383,125,361,891,495,179,633,299,863,285,1399,987,1487,1517,1639,1141,
1729,579,87,1989,593,1907,839,1557,799,1629,201,155,1649,1837,1063,949,
255,1283,535,773,1681,461,1785,683,735,1123,1801,677,689,1939,487,757,
1857,1987,983,443,1327,1267,313,1173,671,221,695,1509,271,1619,89,565,
127,1405,1431,1659,239,1101,1159,1067,607,1565,905,1755,1231,1299,665,373,
1985,701,1879,1221,849,627,1465,789,543,1187,1591,923,1905,979,1241,181};

bool bad255[512] =
{0,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,
 1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,
 0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,
 1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,
 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,
 1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,
 1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,
 1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
 0,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,
 1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,
 0,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,
 1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,
 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,
 1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,
 1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,
 1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,
 0,0};

inline bool square( int64 x ) {
    // Quickfail
    if( x < 0 || (x&2) || ((x & 7) == 5) || ((x & 11) == 8) )
        return false;
    if( x == 0 )
        return true;

    // Check mod 255 = 3 * 5 * 17, for fun
    int64 y = x;
    y = (y & 4294967295LL) + (y >> 32);
    y = (y & 65535) + (y >> 16);
    y = (y & 255) + ((y >> 8) & 255) + (y >> 16);
    if( bad255[y] )
        return false;

    // Divide out powers of 4 using binary search
    if((x & 4294967295LL) == 0)
        x >>= 32;
    if((x & 65535) == 0)
        x >>= 16;
    if((x & 255) == 0)
        x >>= 8;
    if((x & 15) == 0)
        x >>= 4;
    if((x & 3) == 0)
        x >>= 2;

    if((x & 7) != 1)
        return false;

    // Compute sqrt using something like Hensel's lemma
    int64 r, t, z;
    r = start[(x >> 3) & 1023];
    do {
        z = x - r * r;
        if( z == 0 )
            return true;
        if( z < 0 )
            return false;
        t = z & (-z);
        r += (z & t) >> 1;
        if( r > (t  >> 1) )
            r = t - r;
    } while( t <= (1LL << 33) );

    return false;
}