yamayama yamayama - 4 months ago 28
Java Question

Calling a non-static method in a static class - java

I am trying to write a code that generates a List containing all the possible permutations of a given int array.

I have found online a method ("nextPermutation" in the code below) that allows to do that, and I am trying to implement it into a basic code, but it does not work.

The problem is that when I try to dynamically add the array containing the new permutation to the list, all the previous permutations already stored in the list are replaced with the new one.

I guess the problem is somehow related with the fact that my "nextPermutation" is non-static, but I have no idea about what I should do to fix it.

Any suggestion?

package lang_dist;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class lang_dist {

public boolean nextPermutation(int[] array) {
// Find longest non-increasing suffix
int i = array.length - 1;
while (i > 0 && array[i - 1] >= array[i])
// Now i is the head index of the suffix

// Are we at the last permutation already?
if (i <= 0)
return false;

// Let array[i - 1] be the pivot
// Find rightmost element that exceeds the pivot
int j = array.length - 1;
while (array[j] <= array[i - 1])
// Now the value array[j] will become the new pivot
// Assertion: j >= i

// Swap the pivot with j
int temp = array[i - 1];
array[i - 1] = array[j];
array[j] = temp;

// Reverse the suffix
j = array.length - 1;
while (i < j) {
temp = array[i];
array[i] = array[j];
array[j] = temp;

// Successfully computed the next permutation
return true;

public static void main( String[] args )

int[] array = {0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1};

List<int[]> rowList = new ArrayList<int[]>();
List<int[]> results = new ArrayList<int[]>();

lang_dist d=new lang_dist();

while (d.nextPermutation(array)){

System.out.println("Permutation:" + Arrays.toString(array));

results = Arrays.asList(array);



for (int[] row : rowList) {
System.out.println("Row = " + Arrays.toString(row));



The (main) problem is that you store your results in the same array at every permutation. Therefore, rowList contains n references to the same array.

To (quickly) fix the problem, you need to create a new array for every permutation:

results = Arrays.asList(array.clone());

Besides, results here is redundant, use rowList or results to store your permutations.

I suggest you have a look at: Are arrays passed by value or passed by reference in Java? Is Java "pass-by-reference" or "pass-by-value"?