satoru satoru - 2 months ago 11
Python Question

How to avoid reinstalling packages when building Docker image for Python projects?

My Dockerfile is something like

FROM my/base

ADD . /srv
RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
RUN python setup.py install

ENTRYPOINT ["run_server"]


Every time I build a new image, dependencies have to be reinstalled, which could be very slow in my region.

One way I think of to
cache
packages that have been installed is to override the
my/base
image with newer images like this:

docker build -t new_image_1 .
docker tag new_image_1 my/base


So next time I build with this Dockerfile, my/base already has some packages installed.

But this solution has two problems:


  1. It is not always possible to override a base image

  2. The base image grow bigger and bigger as newer images are layered on it



So what better solution could I use to solve this problem?

EDIT##:



Some information about the docker on my machine:

☁ test docker version
Client version: 1.1.2
Client API version: 1.13
Go version (client): go1.2.1
Git commit (client): d84a070
Server version: 1.1.2
Server API version: 1.13
Go version (server): go1.2.1
Git commit (server): d84a070
☁ test docker info
Containers: 0
Images: 56
Storage Driver: aufs
Root Dir: /var/lib/docker/aufs
Dirs: 56
Execution Driver: native-0.2
Kernel Version: 3.13.0-29-generic
WARNING: No swap limit support

Answer

Try to build with below Dockerfile.

FROM my/base

WORKDIR /srv
ADD ./requirements.txt /srv/requirements.txt
RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
ADD . /srv
RUN python setup.py install

ENTRYPOINT ["run_server"]

If there are some changes on .(your project), docker skip pip install line by using cache.

Docker only run pip install on build when you edit requirements.txt file.


I write simple Hello, World! program.

$ tree
.
├── Dockerfile
├── requirements.txt
└── run.py   

0 directories, 3 file

# Dockerfile

FROM dockerfile/python
WORKDIR /srv
ADD ./requirements.txt /srv/requirements.txt
RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
ADD . /srv
CMD python /srv/run.py

# requirements.txt
pytest==2.3.4

# run.py
print("Hello, World")

Below is output.

Step 1 : WORKDIR /srv
---> Running in 22d725d22e10
---> 55768a00fd94
Removing intermediate container 22d725d22e10
Step 2 : ADD ./requirements.txt /srv/requirements.txt
---> 968a7c3a4483
Removing intermediate container 5f4e01f290fd
Step 3 : RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
---> Running in 08188205e92b
Downloading/unpacking pytest==2.3.4 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
  Running setup.py (path:/tmp/pip_build_root/pytest/setup.py) egg_info for package pytest
....
Cleaning up...
---> bf5c154b87c9
Removing intermediate container 08188205e92b
Step 4 : ADD . /srv
---> 3002a3a67e72
Removing intermediate container 83defd1851d0
Step 5 : CMD python /srv/run.py
---> Running in 11e69b887341
---> 5c0e7e3726d6
Removing intermediate container 11e69b887341
Successfully built 5c0e7e3726d6

I update only run.py and try to build again.

# run.py
print("Hello, Python")

Below is output.

Sending build context to Docker daemon  5.12 kB
Sending build context to Docker daemon 
Step 0 : FROM dockerfile/python
---> f86d6993fc7b
Step 1 : WORKDIR /srv
---> Using cache
---> 55768a00fd94
Step 2 : ADD ./requirements.txt /srv/requirements.txt
---> Using cache
---> 968a7c3a4483
Step 3 : RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
---> Using cache
---> bf5c154b87c9
Step 4 : ADD . /srv
---> 9cc7508034d6
Removing intermediate container 0d7cf71eb05e
Step 5 : CMD python /srv/run.py
---> Running in f25c21135010
---> 4ffab7bc66c7
Removing intermediate container f25c21135010
Successfully built 4ffab7bc66c7

As you can see above, docker use build cache. And I update requirements.txt this time.

# requirements.txt

pytest==2.3.4
ipython

Below is output.

Sending build context to Docker daemon  5.12 kB
Sending build context to Docker daemon 
Step 0 : FROM dockerfile/python
---> f86d6993fc7b
Step 1 : WORKDIR /srv
---> Using cache
---> 55768a00fd94
Step 2 : ADD ./requirements.txt /srv/requirements.txt
---> b6c19f0643b5
Removing intermediate container a4d9cb37dff0
Step 3 : RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
---> Running in 4b7a85a64c33
Downloading/unpacking pytest==2.3.4 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
  Running setup.py (path:/tmp/pip_build_root/pytest/setup.py) egg_info for package pytest

Downloading/unpacking ipython (from -r requirements.txt (line 2))
Downloading/unpacking py>=1.4.12 (from pytest==2.3.4->-r requirements.txt (line 1))
  Running setup.py (path:/tmp/pip_build_root/py/setup.py) egg_info for package py

Installing collected packages: pytest, ipython, py
  Running setup.py install for pytest

Installing py.test script to /usr/local/bin
Installing py.test-2.7 script to /usr/local/bin
  Running setup.py install for py

Successfully installed pytest ipython py
Cleaning up...
---> 23a1af3df8ed
Removing intermediate container 4b7a85a64c33
Step 4 : ADD . /srv
---> d8ae270eca35
Removing intermediate container 7f003ebc3179
Step 5 : CMD python /srv/run.py
---> Running in 510359cf9e12
---> e42fc9121a77
Removing intermediate container 510359cf9e12
Successfully built e42fc9121a77

And docker doesn't use build cache. If it doesn't work, check your docker version.

Client version: 1.1.2
Client API version: 1.13
Go version (client): go1.2.1
Git commit (client): d84a070
Server version: 1.1.2
Server API version: 1.13
Go version (server): go1.2.1
Git commit (server): d84a070
Comments