LateX and Python-Sphinx are word-processors, transforming formatted content towards a target document. The usual workflow when working with large documents is to split them in smaller files (sections, chapters) and use a specific file as a table of contents (
None that I know of. But you can do the inverse by including what you want, which would have the same effect as excluding what you don't want, by using the
ifconfig Sphinx extension. You might have to indent what you want.