leonp leonp - 3 months ago 13
C++ Question

How to set structure element at desired offset

In embedded programming when describing the hardware one often needs to place struct elements at known predefined positions as the HW engineer designed them. For example, let's define a structure FPGA, which has some 100 registers/areas as in the following simplified example:

struct sFPGA {
uchar Spare1[0x24];
ushort DiscreteInput;
uchar Spare2[0x7A];
//CPLD_Version is required to be at offset 0xA0, so 0xA0-0x24-2=0x7A
ushort CPLD_Version;
};


Now, I am frustrated and angry of manual calculations and possible errors in the case of a change in the structure. Is there any way to do this more robust/convenient?
I tried to write it this way:

uchar Spare2[0xA0 - offsetof(sFPGA, Spare2)];


but this does not compile complaining about incomplete struct...
Note, that my example is simplified. In reality there are some 20-30 such spare fields that must be defined - the structure is very big.

Answer

Well, this won't win the miss Universe award, but I think it does what you want:

#include <boost/preprocessor/cat.hpp>
typedef unsigned char uchar;
typedef unsigned short ushort;
#define PAD_FIELDS(i_,f_,n_) typedef struct {f_} ftype##i_; f_ uchar BOOST_PP_CAT(padding,i_)[n_ - sizeof (BOOST_PP_CAT(ftype,i_))];

struct sFPGA {
    PAD_FIELDS(1,
    PAD_FIELDS(2,
    uchar   Spare1[0x24];
    ushort  DiscreteInput;
    , 0xA0)        // First padding
    //CPLD_Version is required to be at offset 0xA0
    ushort  CPLD_Version;
    uchar   more_stuff[0x50];
    ushort  even_more[4];
    //NID_Version is required to be at offset 0x10A2
    , 0x10A2)      // Second padding
    ushort  NID_Version;
};

int main() {
    printf("CPLD_Version offset %x\n", offsetof(sFPGA,CPLD_Version));
    printf("NID_Version offset %x\n", offsetof(sFPGA,NID_Version));
}

Let's say you want N=20 padding fields. You have to add N of those PAD_FIELDS(i, in the beginning of your structure, where i runs for example from 1 to 20 (as in my example) or from 0 to 19 or whatever makes you happy. Then, when you need the padding you add for example , 0x80) which means that the next field will be positioned at offset 0x80 from the beginning of the structure.

Upon running this code, it outputs the following text:

CPLD_Version offset a0
NID_Version offset 10a2

The way this macro works is it defines a structure with your fields, it then incorporates your fields, and adds the padding computed according to the structure.

If you don't mind some boost::preprocessor magic, here's a way you can automate the whole PAD_FIELDS(1,PAD_FIELDS(2,PAD_FIELDS(3,PAD_FIELDS(4,... in the beginning:

#include <boost/preprocessor/cat.hpp>
#include <boost/preprocessor/comma.hpp>
#include <boost/preprocessor/repetition/repeat.hpp>
#include <boost/preprocessor/punctuation/paren.hpp>
typedef unsigned char uchar;
typedef unsigned short ushort;
#define PAD_FIELDS(i_,f_, n_) typedef struct {f_} BOOST_PP_CAT(ftype,i_); f_ uchar BOOST_PP_CAT(padding,i_)[n_ - sizeof (BOOST_PP_CAT(ftype,i_))];
#define PADMAC(z,n,s) PAD_FIELDS BOOST_PP_LPAREN() n BOOST_PP_COMMA()
#define PADREP(n) BOOST_PP_REPEAT(n, PADMAC, junk)
#define FORCE_EVAL(...) __VA_ARGS__
#define SET_OFFSET(o) BOOST_PP_COMMA() o BOOST_PP_RPAREN()

struct sFPGA {
    FORCE_EVAL(PADREP(2)
    uchar   Spare1[0x24];
    ushort  DiscreteInput;
    SET_OFFSET(0xA0);
    //CPLD_Version is required to be at offset 0xA0
    ushort  CPLD_Version;
    uchar   more_stuff[0x50];
    ushort  even_more[4];
    //NID_Version is required to be at offset 0x10A2
    SET_OFFSET(0x10A2);
    ushort  NID_Version;
    )
};

Notice what changed in the usage:

  1. In the beginning of the structure you write FORCE_EVAL(PADREP(n) where n is the number of padding elements desired.
  2. Right before the end of the structure you have to add a ")".
  3. Instead of ,0x0A) to specify the padding you have to write SET_OFFSET(0x0A); (the ; is optional).