I installed boost library in my ubuntu 12.04 machine using the following command:
sudo apt-get install libboost-all-dev
Boost.Multiprecission is present in Boost 1.53 onwards.
If you install
libboost-all-dev metapackage from
precise repository by dependncy you get
libboost-dev and by dependncy you also get
libboost1.46-dev which is unfortunately too old.
You might try your luck with some PPA repository.
E. g. this one:
and install the package following this tutorial.