nidzo732 nidzo732 - 1 month ago 53
C# Question

C# Export Private/Public RSA key from RSACryptoServiceProvider to PEM string

I have an instance of System.Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider, i need to export it's key to a PEM string - like this:

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----


But there is no such option according to the MSDN documentation, there is only some kind of XML export. I can't use any third party libraries like BouncyCastle.
Is there any way to generate this string?

Answer

The PEM format is simply the ASN.1 DER encoding of the key (per PKCS#1) converted to Base64. Given the limited number of fields needed to represent the key, it's pretty straightforward to create quick-and-dirty DER encoder to output the appropriate format then Base64 encode it. As such, the code that follows is not particularly elegant, but does the job:

private static void ExportPrivateKey(RSACryptoServiceProvider csp, TextWriter outputStream)
{
    if (csp.PublicOnly) throw new ArgumentException("CSP does not contain a private key", "csp");
    var parameters = csp.ExportParameters(true);
    using (var stream = new MemoryStream())
    {
        var writer = new BinaryWriter(stream);
        writer.Write((byte)0x30); // SEQUENCE
        using (var innerStream = new MemoryStream())
        {
            var innerWriter = new BinaryWriter(innerStream);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, new byte[] { 0x00 }); // Version
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.Modulus);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.Exponent);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.D);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.P);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.Q);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.DP);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.DQ);
            EncodeIntegerBigEndian(innerWriter, parameters.InverseQ);
            var length = (int)innerStream.Length;
            EncodeLength(writer, length);
            writer.Write(innerStream.GetBuffer(), 0, length);
        }

        var base64 = Convert.ToBase64String(stream.GetBuffer(), 0, (int)stream.Length).ToCharArray();
        outputStream.WriteLine("-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----");
        // Output as Base64 with lines chopped at 64 characters
        for (var i = 0; i < base64.Length; i += 64)
        {
            outputStream.WriteLine(base64, i, Math.Min(64, base64.Length - i));
        }
        outputStream.WriteLine("-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----");
    }
}

private static void EncodeLength(BinaryWriter stream, int length)
{
    if (length < 0) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("length", "Length must be non-negative");
    if (length < 0x80)
    {
        // Short form
        stream.Write((byte)length);
    }
    else
    {
        // Long form
        var temp = length;
        var bytesRequired = 0;
        while (temp > 0)
        {
            temp >>= 8;
            bytesRequired++;
        }
        stream.Write((byte)(bytesRequired | 0x80));
        for (var i = bytesRequired - 1; i >= 0; i--)
        {
            stream.Write((byte)(length >> (8 * i) & 0xff));
        }
    }
}

private static void EncodeIntegerBigEndian(BinaryWriter stream, byte[] value, bool forceUnsigned = true)
{
    stream.Write((byte)0x02); // INTEGER
    var prefixZeros = 0;
    for (var i = 0; i < value.Length; i++)
    {
        if (value[i] != 0) break;
        prefixZeros++;
    }
    if (value.Length - prefixZeros == 0)
    {
        EncodeLength(stream, 1);
        stream.Write((byte)0);
    }
    else
    {
        if (forceUnsigned && value[prefixZeros] > 0x7f)
        {
            // Add a prefix zero to force unsigned if the MSB is 1
            EncodeLength(stream, value.Length - prefixZeros + 1);
            stream.Write((byte)0);
        }
        else
        {
            EncodeLength(stream, value.Length - prefixZeros);
        }
        for (var i = prefixZeros; i < value.Length; i++)
        {
            stream.Write(value[i]);
        }
    }
}