In visual studio, I could just press ctrl+spacekey and the methods appeared. In Geany is there a way for me to get this functionality?
No, because is Python is dynamically typed language and quite hard to achieve that. Python plugins for netbeans do that partially, but I believe such plugin is not in geany developers plans. There are different things to be done ;-)
However, geany provides some completions support. First, it analyzes your imports in a file and uses it in completions; furthermore it completes functions from the std library. It also analyzes all you open files for suggestions, although you may need to apply it in preferences. Also you can get call tips, when you hit Ctrl+Shift+Space, which not everyone know about. They are quite good, because they appear in form
<Class>.<method>(<args>), which is very helpful.