Rachel Rachel - 2 months ago 20
C# Question

How would I run an async Task<T> method synchronously?

I'm learning about async/await, and ran into a situation where I need to call an async method synchronously. How can I do that?

Async method:

public async Task<Customers> GetCustomers()
{
return await Service.GetCustomersAsync();
}


Normal usage:

public async void GetCustomers()
{
customerList = await GetCustomers();
}


I've tried using the following:

Task<Customer> task = GetCustomers();
task.Wait()

Task<Customer> task = GetCustomers();
task.RunSynchronously();

Task<Customer> task = GetCustomers();
while(task.Status != TaskStatus.RanToCompletion)


I also tried a suggestion from here, however it doesn't work when the dispatcher is in a suspended state.

public static void WaitWithPumping(this Task task)
{
if (task == null) throw new ArgumentNullException(“task”);
var nestedFrame = new DispatcherFrame();
task.ContinueWith(_ => nestedFrame.Continue = false);
Dispatcher.PushFrame(nestedFrame);
task.Wait();
}


Here is the exception and stack trace from calling
RunSynchronously
:


System.InvalidOperationException

Message: RunSynchronously may not be called on a task unbound to a delegate.

InnerException: null

Source: mscorlib

StackTrace:


at System.Threading.Tasks.Task.InternalRunSynchronously(TaskScheduler scheduler)
at System.Threading.Tasks.Task.RunSynchronously()
at MyApplication.CustomControls.Controls.MyCustomControl.CreateAvailablePanelList() in C:\Documents and Settings\...\MyApplication.CustomControls\Controls\MyCustomControl.xaml.cs:line 638
at MyApplication.CustomControls.Controls.MyCustomControl.get_AvailablePanels() in C:\Documents and Settings\...\MyApplication.CustomControls\Controls\MyCustomControl.xaml.cs:line 233
at MyApplication.CustomControls.Controls.MyCustomControl.<CreateOpenPanelList>b__36(DesktopPanel panel) in C:\Documents and Settings\...\MyApplication.CustomControls\Controls\MyCustomControl.xaml.cs:line 597
at System.Collections.Generic.List`1.ForEach(Action`1 action)
at MyApplication.CustomControls.Controls.MyCustomControl.<CreateOpenPanelList>d__3b.MoveNext() in C:\Documents and Settings\...\MyApplication.CustomControls\Controls\MyCustomControl.xaml.cs:line 625
at System.Runtime.CompilerServices.TaskAwaiter.<>c__DisplayClass7.<TrySetContinuationForAwait>b__1(Object state)
at System.Windows.Threading.ExceptionWrapper.InternalRealCall(Delegate callback, Object args, Int32 numArgs)
at MS.Internal.Threading.ExceptionFilterHelper.TryCatchWhen(Object source, Delegate method, Object args, Int32 numArgs, Delegate catchHandler)
at System.Windows.Threading.DispatcherOperation.InvokeImpl()
at System.Windows.Threading.DispatcherOperation.InvokeInSecurityContext(Object state)
at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.runTryCode(Object userData)
at System.Runtime.CompilerServices.RuntimeHelpers.ExecuteCodeWithGuaranteedCleanup(TryCode code, CleanupCode backoutCode, Object userData)
at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state)
at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.Run(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state, Boolean ignoreSyncCtx)
at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.Run(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state)
at System.Windows.Threading.DispatcherOperation.Invoke()
at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.ProcessQueue()
at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.WndProcHook(IntPtr hwnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, Boolean& handled)
at MS.Win32.HwndWrapper.WndProc(IntPtr hwnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, Boolean& handled)
at MS.Win32.HwndSubclass.DispatcherCallbackOperation(Object o)
at System.Windows.Threading.ExceptionWrapper.InternalRealCall(Delegate callback, Object args, Int32 numArgs)
at MS.Internal.Threading.ExceptionFilterHelper.TryCatchWhen(Object source, Delegate method, Object args, Int32 numArgs, Delegate catchHandler)
at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.InvokeImpl(DispatcherPriority priority, TimeSpan timeout, Delegate method, Object args, Int32 numArgs)
at MS.Win32.HwndSubclass.SubclassWndProc(IntPtr hwnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam)
at MS.Win32.UnsafeNativeMethods.DispatchMessage(MSG& msg)
at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.PushFrameImpl(DispatcherFrame frame)
at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.PushFrame(DispatcherFrame frame)
at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.Run()
at System.Windows.Application.RunDispatcher(Object ignore)
at System.Windows.Application.RunInternal(Window window)
at System.Windows.Application.Run(Window window)
at System.Windows.Application.Run()
at MyApplication.App.Main() in C:\Documents and Settings\...\MyApplication\obj\Debug\App.g.cs:line 50
at System.AppDomain._nExecuteAssembly(RuntimeAssembly assembly, String[] args)
at System.AppDomain.ExecuteAssembly(String assemblyFile, Evidence assemblySecurity, String[] args)
at Microsoft.VisualStudio.HostingProcess.HostProc.RunUsersAssembly()
at System.Threading.ThreadHelper.ThreadStart_Context(Object state)
at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.Run(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state, Boolean ignoreSyncCtx)
at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.Run(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state)
at System.Threading.ThreadHelper.ThreadStart()

Answer

Here's a workaround I found that works for all cases (including suspended dispatchers). It's not my code and I'm still working to fully understand it, but it does work.

It can be called using:

customerList = AsyncHelpers.RunSync<List<Customer>>(() => GetCustomers());

Code is from here

public static class AsyncHelpers
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Execute's an async Task<T> method which has a void return value synchronously
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="task">Task<T> method to execute</param>
    public static void RunSync(Func<Task> task)
    {
        var oldContext = SynchronizationContext.Current;
        var synch = new ExclusiveSynchronizationContext();
        SynchronizationContext.SetSynchronizationContext(synch);
        synch.Post(async _ =>
        {
            try
            {
                await task();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                synch.InnerException = e;
                throw;
            }
            finally
            {
                synch.EndMessageLoop();
            }
        }, null);
        synch.BeginMessageLoop();

        SynchronizationContext.SetSynchronizationContext(oldContext);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Execute's an async Task<T> method which has a T return type synchronously
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="T">Return Type</typeparam>
    /// <param name="task">Task<T> method to execute</param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static T RunSync<T>(Func<Task<T>> task)
    {
        var oldContext = SynchronizationContext.Current;
        var synch = new ExclusiveSynchronizationContext();
        SynchronizationContext.SetSynchronizationContext(synch);
        T ret = default(T);
        synch.Post(async _ =>
        {
            try
            {
                ret = await task();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                synch.InnerException = e;
                throw;
            }
            finally
            {
                synch.EndMessageLoop();
            }
        }, null);
        synch.BeginMessageLoop();
        SynchronizationContext.SetSynchronizationContext(oldContext);
        return ret;
    }

    private class ExclusiveSynchronizationContext : SynchronizationContext
    {
        private bool done;
        public Exception InnerException { get; set; }
        readonly AutoResetEvent workItemsWaiting = new AutoResetEvent(false);
        readonly Queue<Tuple<SendOrPostCallback, object>> items =
            new Queue<Tuple<SendOrPostCallback, object>>();

        public override void Send(SendOrPostCallback d, object state)
        {
            throw new NotSupportedException("We cannot send to our same thread");
        }

        public override void Post(SendOrPostCallback d, object state)
        {
            lock (items)
            {
                items.Enqueue(Tuple.Create(d, state));
            }
            workItemsWaiting.Set();
        }

        public void EndMessageLoop()
        {
            Post(_ => done = true, null);
        }

        public void BeginMessageLoop()
        {
            while (!done)
            {
                Tuple<SendOrPostCallback, object> task = null;
                lock (items)
                {
                    if (items.Count > 0)
                    {
                        task = items.Dequeue();
                    }
                }
                if (task != null)
                {
                    task.Item1(task.Item2);
                    if (InnerException != null) // the method threw an exeption
                    {
                        throw new AggregateException("AsyncHelpers.Run method threw an exception.", InnerException);
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    workItemsWaiting.WaitOne();
                }
            }
        }

        public override SynchronizationContext CreateCopy()
        {
            return this;
        }
    }
}
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