Mike - 2 months ago 11

C Question

I'm trying to familiarize myself with CUDA programming, and having a pretty fun time of it. I'm currently looking at this pdf which deals with matrix multiplication, done with and without shared memory. Full code for both versions can be found here. This code is almost the exact same as what's in the CUDA matrix multiplication samples. Although the non-shared memory version has the capability to run at any matrix size, regardless of block size, the shared memory version must work with matrices that are a multiple of the block size (which I set to 4, default was originally 16).

One of the problems suggested at the end of the pdf is to change it so that the shared memory version can also work with non-multiples of the block size. I thought this would be a simple index check, like in the non-shared version:

`int row = blockIdx.y * blockDim.y + threadIdx.y;`

int col = blockIdx.x * blockDim.x + threadIdx.x;

if(row > A.height || col > B.width) return;

But this doesn't work. Here's the full code, minus the main method (a bit of a mess, sorry), which has been modified somewhat by me:

`void MatMul(const Matrix A, const Matrix B, Matrix C) {`

// Load A and B to device memory

Matrix d_A;

d_A.width = d_A.stride = A.width;

d_A.height = A.height;

size_t size = A.width * A.height * sizeof(float);

cudaError_t err = cudaMalloc(&d_A.elements, size);

printf("CUDA malloc A: %s\n",cudaGetErrorString(err));

err = cudaMemcpy(d_A.elements, A.elements, size, cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);

printf("Copy A to device: %s\n",cudaGetErrorString(err));

Matrix d_B;

d_B.width = d_B.stride = B.width;

d_B.height = B.height;

size = B.width * B.height * sizeof(float);

err = cudaMalloc(&d_B.elements, size);

printf("CUDA malloc B: %s\n",cudaGetErrorString(err));

err = cudaMemcpy(d_B.elements, B.elements, size, cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);

printf("Copy B to device: %s\n",cudaGetErrorString(err));

Matrix d_C;

d_C.width = d_C.stride = C.width;

d_C.height = C.height;

size = C.width * C.height * sizeof(float);

err = cudaMalloc(&d_C.elements, size);

printf("CUDA malloc C: %s\n",cudaGetErrorString(err));

dim3 dimBlock(BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE);

dim3 dimGrid((B.width + dimBlock.x - 1) / dimBlock.x, (A.height + dimBlock.y-1) / dimBlock.y);

MatMulKernel<<<dimGrid, dimBlock>>>(d_A, d_B, d_C);

err = cudaThreadSynchronize();

printf("Run kernel: %s\n", cudaGetErrorString(err));

// Read C from device memory

err = cudaMemcpy(C.elements, d_C.elements, size, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);

printf("Copy C off of device: %s\n",cudaGetErrorString(err));

// Free device memory

cudaFree(d_A.elements);

cudaFree(d_B.elements);

cudaFree(d_C.elements);

}

// Get a matrix element

__device__ float GetElement(const Matrix A, int row, int col) {

return A.elements[row * A.stride + col];

}

// Set a matrix element

__device__ void SetElement(Matrix A, int row, int col, float value) {

A.elements[row * A.stride + col] = value;

}

// Get the BLOCK_SIZExBLOCK_SIZE sub-matrix Asub of A that is

// located col sub-matrices to the right and row sub-matrices down

// from the upper-left corner of A

__device__ Matrix GetSubMatrix(Matrix A, int row, int col) {

Matrix Asub;

Asub.width = BLOCK_SIZE;

Asub.height = BLOCK_SIZE;

Asub.stride = A.stride;

Asub.elements = &A.elements[A.stride * BLOCK_SIZE * row + BLOCK_SIZE * col];

return Asub;

}

// Matrix multiplication kernel called by MatMul()

__global__ void MatMulKernel(Matrix A, Matrix B, Matrix C) {

// Block row and column

int blockRow = blockIdx.y;

int blockCol = blockIdx.x;

int rowTest = blockIdx.y * blockDim.y + threadIdx.y;

int colTest = blockIdx.x * blockDim.x + threadIdx.x;

if (rowTest>A.height || colTest>B.width)

return;

// Each thread block computes one sub-matrix Csub of C

Matrix Csub = GetSubMatrix(C, blockRow, blockCol);

// Each thread computes one element of Csub

// by accumulating results into Cvalue

float Cvalue = 0.0;

// Thread row and column within Csub

int row = threadIdx.y;

int col = threadIdx.x;

// Loop over all the sub-matrices of A and B that are

// required to compute Csub

// Multiply each pair of sub-matrices together

// and accumulate the results

for (int m = 0; m < (BLOCK_SIZE + A.width - 1)/BLOCK_SIZE; ++m) {

// Get sub-matrix Asub of A

Matrix Asub = GetSubMatrix(A, blockRow, m);

// Get sub-matrix Bsub of B

Matrix Bsub = GetSubMatrix(B, m, blockCol);

// Shared memory used to store Asub and Bsub respectively

__shared__ float As[BLOCK_SIZE][BLOCK_SIZE];

__shared__ float Bs[BLOCK_SIZE][BLOCK_SIZE];

// Load Asub and Bsub from device memory to shared memory

// Each thread loads one element of each sub-matrix

As[row][col] = GetElement(Asub, row, col);

Bs[row][col] = GetElement(Bsub, row, col);

// Synchronize to make sure the sub-matrices are loaded

// before starting the computation

__syncthreads();

// Multiply Asub and Bsub together

for (int e = 0; e < BLOCK_SIZE; ++e)

{

Cvalue += As[row][e] * Bs[e][col];

}

// Synchronize to make sure that the preceding

// computation is done before loading two new

// sub-matrices of A and B in the next iteration

__syncthreads();

}

// Write Csub to device memory

// Each thread writes one element

SetElement(Csub, row, col, Cvalue);

}

notable things which I changed: I added a check in MatMulKernel that checks if our current thread is trying to work on a spot in C that doesn't exist. This doesn't seem to work. Although it does change the result, the changes don't seem to have any pattern other than that later (higher x or y value) entries seem to be more affected (and I get a lot more non-integer results). I also changed the given dimGrid calculation method and the loop condition for m in MatMulKernel(before it was just width or height divided by block size, which seemed wrong).

Even the solutions guide that I found for this guide seems to suggest it should just be a simple index check, so I think I'm missing something really fundamental.

Answer

When the matrix dimensions are not multiples of the tile dimensions, then it can happen that some tiles cover the matrices only partially. The tile elements falling outside the not-fully overlapping tiles should be properly zero-ed. So, extending your code to arbitrarly sized matrices is easy, but does not amount at a simple index check. Below, I'm copying and pasting my version of the tiled matrix-matrix multiplication kernel with arbitrarily sized matrices

```
__global__ void MatMul(float* A, float* B, float* C, int ARows, int ACols, int BRows,
int BCols, int CRows, int CCols)
{
float CValue = 0;
int Row = blockIdx.y*TILE_DIM + threadIdx.y;
int Col = blockIdx.x*TILE_DIM + threadIdx.x;
__shared__ float As[TILE_DIM][TILE_DIM];
__shared__ float Bs[TILE_DIM][TILE_DIM];
for (int k = 0; k < (TILE_DIM + ACols - 1)/TILE_DIM; k++) {
if (k*TILE_DIM + threadIdx.x < ACols && Row < ARows)
As[threadIdx.y][threadIdx.x] = A[Row*ACols + k*TILE_DIM + threadIdx.x];
else
As[threadIdx.y][threadIdx.x] = 0.0;
if (k*TILE_DIM + threadIdx.y < BRows && Col < BCols)
Bs[threadIdx.y][threadIdx.x] = B[(k*TILE_DIM + threadIdx.y)*BCols + Col];
else
Bs[threadIdx.y][threadIdx.x] = 0.0;
__syncthreads();
for (int n = 0; n < TILE_DIM; ++n)
CValue += As[threadIdx.y][n] * Bs[n][threadIdx.x];
__syncthreads();
}
if (Row < CRows && Col < CCols)
C[((blockIdx.y * blockDim.y + threadIdx.y)*CCols) +
(blockIdx.x * blockDim.x)+ threadIdx.x] = CValue;
}
```