The short answer is that a RESTful service does generally imply HTTP, but it's not strictly necessary. The wikipedia entry includes a section on implementations outside the web, though it's pretty brief and really only talks about Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP).
Realistically, to most developers, RESTful services operate over HTTP.
You could surely take inspiration from RESTful protocols on the web and build your own similar protocol over raw TCP, but you may well finding yourself implementing it in the language of HTTP. At that point you may want to ask yourself why you didn't just use HTTP in the first place.