Stephen - 1 year ago 100

Python Question

I've been playing around with Cython lately and I came across this error when applying a decorator to a Cython function

`Cdef functions/classes cannot take arbitrary decorators`

Here is the code I was tinkering with:

`import functools`

def memoize(f):

computed = {}

@functools.wraps(f)

def memoized_f(main_arg, *args, **kwargs):

if computed.get(main_arg):

return computed[main_arg]

computed[main_arg] = f(main_arg, *args, **kwargs)

return computed[main_arg]

return memoized_f

@memoize

cpdef int fib(int n):

return 1 if n < 2 else fib(n - 1) + fib(n - 2)

The error suggests that cdef functions can only take

EDIT: For future readers:

The

`g = plus_one(_g)`

`fib = memoize(fib)`

`fib(5)`

`fib(5)`

`fib(4), fib(3), fib(2), fib(1)`

As @DavidW points out,

`cdef, cpdef`

Answer Source

**No** - you can't easily write decorators for `cdef`

functions. The decorators `cdef`

functions take are things like `cython.boundscheck`

which control the Cython code generation rather than user generated functions.

The main difference between a `cdef`

function and a `def`

function is that a `cdef`

function has a C interface while a `def`

function becomes a Python callable so can be used from Python (but calling it is slightly less efficient because the arguments have to be passed in terms of PyObjects). [The inside of *both* a `cdef`

and `def`

function is compiled by Python so the only performance difference comes from the calling overhead]

The usual use of a decorator is to take an arbitrary Python callable and make some modification to it. For example

```
def plus_one(f):
def wrapper(*args,**kwargs):
return f(*args,**kwargs) + 1
return wrapper
```

now try to use it on a cdef function

```
cdef int g(double x, double y):
# some implementation...
```

The first problem is that g is translated to C code like `int g(double x, double y)`

which can be represented by a function pointer but not as an arbitrary Python callable like `plus_one`

expects. Second, `wrapper`

has no way of knowing (from a C function pointer) what `g`

s arguments are called (can't do `**kwargs`

) or any easy way of doing the `*args`

expansion.

You can make something like a decorator by taking a specific function pointer type and returning a Python callable:

```
cdef plus_one(int (*f)(double, double):
def wrapper(double x, double y):
return f(x, y) + 1
return wrapper
cdef int _g(double x, double y):
# some implementation
g = plus_one(_g) # kind of like a decorator
```

*However,* you've lost the whole benefit of using a `cdef`

function since `g`

is now a generic Python callable with all the overhead that goes with it.

Addendum: an alternative way of putting it is that decorators are a runtime Python feature (usually run at module import). `cdef`

functions are a compile-time C feature. While it probably wouldn't be impossible to implement something like "compile-time decorators" it would be a pretty significant change to Cython.