Fry - 5 months ago 24

Python Question

I ran across the caret operator in python today and trying it out, I got the following output:

`>>> 8^3`

11

>>> 8^4

12

>>> 8^1

9

>>> 8^0

8

>>> 7^1

6

>>> 7^2

5

>>> 7^7

0

>>> 7^8

15

>>> 9^1

8

>>> 16^1

17

>>> 15^1

14

>>>

It seems to be based on 8, so I'm guessing some sort of byte operation? I can't seem to find much about this searching sites other than it behaves oddly for floats, does anybody have a link to what this operator does or can you explain it here?

Answer

It's a bitwise XOR (exclusive OR).

It results to true if **one** (and only one) of the operands (evaluates to) true.

To demonstrate:

```
>>> 0^0
0
>>> 1^1
0
>>> 1^0
1
>>> 0^1
1
```

To explain one of your own examples:

```
>>> 8^3
11
```

Think about it this way:

1000 # 8 (binary) 0011 # 3 (binary) ---- # APPLY XOR ('vertically') 1011 # result = 11 (binary)