I am just starting to learn hashtables, and so far, I know that you take the object you want to hash and put it through an hash function, then use the index it returns to get the corresponding object you want. There is something I don't understand though:
What structure do you use to store the objects in so you can quickly index them with the code returned by the hash function? The only thing I can think of is to use an array, but to handle all the keys, you'd have to allocate one that's 9999999999999 elements big or something ridiculous like that. Or is it as simple as iterating over a linked list or something and comparing the ID in each of the elements with the key from that hash function? And if so, that seems kind of inefficient doesn't it?
Yes, you usually use an array but then you do a couple of things:
You convert the hash code to an array index by using the remainder of the hash code divided by the array size.
You make the size of the array a prime number as that makes step #1 more efficient (some hash algorithms need this to get a uniform distribution)
You come up with a design to handle hash collisions. @JerryCoffin's answer gives you more detail.