Degen Sharew Degen Sharew - 3 months ago 12
Linux Question

arp request and reply using c socket programming

I am trying to receive and send arp packets using c programming in Linux (Ubuntu)

My program works fine (i.e. runs without any error), but I cannot trace the packets using Wireshark.

source code:

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/time.h>

#include <asm/types.h>

#include <math.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <signal.h>

#include <linux/if_packet.h>
#include <linux/if_ether.h>
#include <linux/if_arp.h>

#define BUF_SIZE 42
#define DEVICE "eth0"
#define ETH_P_NULL 0x0
#define ETH_MAC_LEN ETH_ALEN
#define ETH_ARP 0x0806

int s = 0; /*Socketdescriptor*/
void* buffer = NULL;
long total_packets = 0;
long answered_packets = 0;

void sigint(int signum);

struct __attribute__((packed)) arp_header
{
unsigned short arp_hd;
unsigned short arp_pr;
unsigned char arp_hdl;
unsigned char arp_prl;
unsigned short arp_op;
unsigned char arp_sha[6];
unsigned char arp_spa[4];
unsigned char arp_dha[6];
unsigned char arp_dpa[4];
};
int main(void) {
buffer = (void*)malloc(BUF_SIZE); /*Buffer for Ethernet Frame*/
unsigned char* etherhead = buffer; /*Pointer to Ethenet Header*/
struct ethhdr *eh = (struct ethhdr *)etherhead; /*Another pointer to
ethernet header*/
unsigned char* arphead = buffer + 14;
struct arp_header *ah;
unsigned char src_mac[6]; /*our MAC address*/

struct ifreq ifr;
struct sockaddr_ll socket_address;
int ifindex = 0; /*Ethernet Interface index*/
int i;
int length; /*length of received packet*/
int sent;

printf("Server started, entering initialiation phase...\n");

/*open socket*/
s = socket(AF_PACKET, SOCK_RAW, htons(ETH_P_ALL));
if (s == -1) {
perror("socket():");
exit(1);
}
printf("Successfully opened socket: %i\n", s);

/*retrieve ethernet interface index*/
strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, DEVICE, IFNAMSIZ);
if (ioctl(s, SIOCGIFINDEX, &ifr) == -1) {
perror("SIOCGIFINDEX");
exit(1);
}
ifindex = ifr.ifr_ifindex;
printf("Successfully got interface index: %i\n", ifindex);

/*retrieve corresponding MAC*/
if (ioctl(s, SIOCGIFHWADDR, &ifr) == -1) {
perror("SIOCGIFINDEX");
exit(1);
}
for (i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
src_mac[i] = ifr.ifr_hwaddr.sa_data[i];
}
printf("Successfully got our MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
src_mac[0],src_mac[1],src_mac[2],src_mac[3],src_mac[4],src_mac[5]);

/*prepare sockaddr_ll*/
socket_address.sll_family = PF_PACKET;
socket_address.sll_protocol = htons(ETH_P_IP);
socket_address.sll_ifindex = ifindex;
socket_address.sll_hatype = ARPHRD_ETHER;
socket_address.sll_pkttype = PACKET_OTHERHOST;
socket_address.sll_halen = 0;
socket_address.sll_addr[6] = 0x00;
socket_address.sll_addr[7] = 0x00;
/*establish signal handler*/
signal(SIGINT, sigint);
printf("Successfully established signal handler for SIGINT\n");
printf("We are in production state, waiting for incoming packets....\n");

while (1) {
/*Wait for incoming packet...*/
length = recvfrom(s, buffer, BUF_SIZE, 0, NULL, NULL);
if (length == -1)
{
perror("recvfrom():");
exit(1);
}
if(htons(eh->h_proto) == 0x806)
{

unsigned char buf_arp_dha[6];
unsigned char buf_arp_dpa[4];

ah = (struct arp_header *)arphead;
if(htons(ah->arp_op) != 0x0001)
continue;
printf("buffer is---------------- %s \n",(char*)ah);
printf("H/D TYPE : %x PROTO TYPE : %x \n",ah->arp_hd,ah->arp_pr);
printf("H/D leng : %x PROTO leng : %x \n",ah->arp_hdl,ah->arp_prl);
printf("OPERATION : %x \n", ah->arp_op);
printf("SENDER MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
ah->arp_sha[0],
ah->arp_sha[1],
ah->arp_sha[2],
ah->arp_sha[3],
ah->arp_sha[4],
ah->arp_sha[5]
);
printf("SENDER IP address: %02d:%02d:%02d:%02d\n",
ah->arp_spa[0],
ah->arp_spa[1],
ah->arp_spa[2],
ah->arp_spa[3]
);
if(ah->arp_spa[0]==10&&ah->arp_spa[1]==00&&ah->arp_spa[2]==00&&ah->arp_spa[3]==01)
{
printf("Sender ip is .............bam bam..........................................\n");
system("sudo arp -s 10.0.0.1 00:1e:73:91:04:0d");
}
printf("TARGET MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
ah->arp_dha[0],
ah->arp_dha[1],
ah->arp_dha[2],
ah->arp_dha[3],
ah->arp_dha[4],
ah->arp_dha[5]
);
printf("TARGET IP address: %02d:%02d:%02d:%02d\n",
ah->arp_dpa[0],
ah->arp_dpa[1],
ah->arp_dpa[2],
ah->arp_dpa[3]
);

printf("+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++\n" );
printf("ETHER DST MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
eh->h_dest[0],
eh->h_dest[1],
eh->h_dest[2],
eh->h_dest[3],
eh->h_dest[4],
eh->h_dest[5]
);
printf("ETHER SRC MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
eh->h_source[0],
eh->h_source[1],
eh->h_source[2],
eh->h_source[3],
eh->h_source[4],
eh->h_source[5]
);
memcpy( (void*)etherhead, (const void*)(etherhead+ETH_MAC_LEN),
ETH_MAC_LEN);
memcpy( (void*)(etherhead+ETH_MAC_LEN), (const void*)src_mac,
ETH_MAC_LEN);
eh->h_proto = ETH_ARP;
printf("&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& \n");
printf("ETHER DST MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
eh->h_dest[0],
eh->h_dest[1],
eh->h_dest[2],
eh->h_dest[3],
eh->h_dest[4],
eh->h_dest[5]
);
printf("ETHER SRC MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
eh->h_source[0],
eh->h_source[1],
eh->h_source[2],
eh->h_source[3],
eh->h_source[4],
eh->h_source[5]
);
ah->arp_hd = ntohs(ah->arp_hd);
ah->arp_pr = ntohs(ah->arp_pr);

ah->arp_op = 0x0002;

buf_arp_dpa[0] = ah->arp_dpa[0];
buf_arp_dpa[1] = ah->arp_dpa[1];
buf_arp_dpa[2] = ah->arp_dpa[2];
buf_arp_dpa[3] = ah->arp_dpa[3];

ah->arp_dha[0] = ah->arp_sha[0];
ah->arp_dha[1] = ah->arp_sha[1];
ah->arp_dha[2] = ah->arp_sha[2];
ah->arp_dha[3] = ah->arp_sha[3];
ah->arp_dha[4] = ah->arp_sha[4];
ah->arp_dha[5] = ah->arp_sha[5];

ah->arp_dpa[0] = ah->arp_spa[0];
ah->arp_dpa[1] = ah->arp_spa[1];
ah->arp_dpa[2] = ah->arp_spa[2];
ah->arp_dpa[3] = ah->arp_spa[3];

ah->arp_spa[0] = buf_arp_dpa[0];
ah->arp_spa[1] = buf_arp_dpa[1];
ah->arp_spa[2] = buf_arp_dpa[2];
ah->arp_spa[3] = buf_arp_dpa[3];
//change the sender mac address
ah->arp_sha[0] = 0x00;
ah->arp_sha[1] = 0x1e;
ah->arp_sha[2] = 0x73;
ah->arp_sha[3] = 0x78;
ah->arp_sha[4] = 0x9a;
ah->arp_sha[5] = 0x0d;

socket_address.sll_addr[0] = eh->h_dest[0];
socket_address.sll_addr[1] = eh->h_dest[1];
socket_address.sll_addr[2] = eh->h_dest[2];
socket_address.sll_addr[3] = eh->h_dest[3];
socket_address.sll_addr[4] = eh->h_dest[4];
socket_address.sll_addr[5] = eh->h_dest[5];
printf("=======================================\n" );
printf("SENDER MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
ah->arp_sha[0],
ah->arp_sha[1],
ah->arp_sha[2],
ah->arp_sha[3],
ah->arp_sha[4],
ah->arp_sha[5]
);
printf("SENDER IP address: %02d:%02d:%02d:%02d\n",
ah->arp_spa[0],
ah->arp_spa[1],
ah->arp_spa[2],
ah->arp_spa[3]
);
if((ah->arp_spa[0]==10 && ah->arp_spa[1]==0 && ah->arp_spa[2]==0 && ah->arp_spa[3]==1))
printf("------------------------------------------10.0.0.1-----------------------------------------\n");
printf("TARGET MAC address: %02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X:%02X\n",
ah->arp_dha[0],
ah->arp_dha[1],
ah->arp_dha[2],
ah->arp_dha[3],
ah->arp_dha[4],
ah->arp_dha[5]
);
printf("TARGET IP address: %02d:%02d:%02d:%02d\n",
ah->arp_dpa[0],
ah->arp_dpa[1],
ah->arp_dpa[2],
ah->arp_dpa[3]
);
printf("H/D TYPE : %x PROTO TYPE : %x \n",ah->arp_hd,ah->arp_pr);
printf("H/D leng : %x PROTO leng : %x \n",ah->arp_hdl,ah->arp_prl);
printf("OPERATION : %x \n", ah->arp_op);

sent = sendto(s, buffer, BUF_SIZE, 0, (struct
sockaddr*)&socket_address, sizeof(socket_address));
if (sent == -1)
{
perror("sendto():");
exit(1);
}

answered_packets++;

}

total_packets++;

}
}

void sigint(int signum) {
/*Clean up.......*/

struct ifreq ifr;

if (s == -1)
return;

strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, DEVICE, IFNAMSIZ);
ioctl(s, SIOCGIFFLAGS, &ifr);
ifr.ifr_flags &= ~IFF_PROMISC;
ioctl(s, SIOCSIFFLAGS, &ifr);
close(s);

free(buffer);

printf("Server terminating....\n");

printf("Totally received: %ld packets\n", total_packets);
printf("Answered %ld packets\n", answered_packets);
exit(0);
}

Answer

A couple of things to get your packets on the wire/air.

  • The proper .sll_protocol for the arp reply is ETH_P_ARP, from <linux/if_ether.h>
  • There was an error in endianness when setting ah->arp_op. It is a network byteorder field of 2 octets, so use htons().

  • In general, the code is a little confused about network and host byteorder. It currently sends out the reply very mangled, but it is unclear to me whether that is the malicious intent of the code, or an accident. In the case that you want to send real, correct IP addresses, use htonl and htons, when building the reply.

To fix endianness:

  • Properly include <arpa/inet.h>
  • Use htons(), htonl() ntohs() and ntohl(), always. Their implementation makes it a NOP, if its not needed on your platform.
  • When setting up data to be sent out from host, always process it with hton*()
  • When interpreting data from the network, always ntoh*() it before comparing with local variables.

In summary, the changes I did were 1) .sll_protocol = htons(ETH_P_ARP). (when sending data) 2) ah->arp_op = htons(ARPOP_REPLY) (in the reply arp) 3) Removed the nonsensical ntohs() on ah->arp_hd and ah->arp_pr. You dont want to convert data to host byteorder when populating the send buffer (unless you really really actually do) 4) Added ntohs() conversions and proper defines in some of the comparisons 5) some other small fixes 6) disabled the bit doing system("sudo...")!

Full code at pastebin. Here is a diff:

thuovila@glx:~/src/so/arp$ diff arp2.c arp_orig.c 
13d12
< #include <arpa/inet.h>
20c19
< #define DEVICE "eth1"
---
> #define DEVICE "eth0"
25c24
< int s = -1; /*Socketdescriptor*/
---
> int s = 0; /*Socketdescriptor*/
92c91
<       socket_address.sll_protocol = htons(ETH_P_ARP);
---
>       socket_address.sll_protocol = htons(ETH_P_IP);
95c94
<       socket_address.sll_pkttype = 0; //PACKET_OTHERHOST;
---
>       socket_address.sll_pkttype = PACKET_OTHERHOST;
112c111
<               if(ntohs(eh->h_proto) == ETH_P_ARP)
---
>               if(htons(eh->h_proto) == 0x806)
119c118
<                               if(ntohs(ah->arp_op) != ARPOP_REQUEST)
---
>                               if(htons(ah->arp_op) != 0x0001)
139d137
<                               #if 0
145d142
<                               #endif
182c179
<                               eh->h_proto = htons(ETH_P_ARP);
---
>                               eh->h_proto = ETH_ARP;
200,201c197,198
<                               //ah->arp_hd = ntohs(ah->arp_hd);
<                               //ah->arp_pr = ntohs(ah->arp_pr);
---
>                               ah->arp_hd = ntohs(ah->arp_hd);
>                               ah->arp_pr = ntohs(ah->arp_pr);
203c200
<                               ah->arp_op = htons(ARPOP_REPLY);
---
>                               ah->arp_op = 0x0002;

EDIT Some wireshark advice. Capture ether proto 0x0806 (or arp for short). Use the pseudo device that captures any packets. Your packets should become visible.

On linux, if you want to stop the network stack from interfering, use: echo "8" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/arp_ignore

EDIT #2 I am not completely sure about the ETH_P_ARP. It might have been a snap judgement on my part. Using ETH_P_IP is correct in the ARP header field, but Im not sure which one to use for the packet socket sll_protocol. Also notice that socket_address.sll_pkttype = PACKET_OTHERHOST;has no effect when sending (see man 7 packet). Also the mandatory SO observation, that you should always use at least -Wall (when using gcc or clang) as a compilation flag.

EDIT #3 I changed the program a little more. and updated the answer and diff accordingly. Surprisingly it does indeed seem, that .sll_protocol needs to be ETH_P_ARP. My copy of the man 7 packet doesnt even say it is used for anything, but the packet doesnt go out on the wire as ARP without it.

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