Is there a difference between
Comparing the two (block and table), I don't know of any core differences (there may be minor ones) you would see within a vacuum. I believe the major differences are specifically to children. Tables and their children have very different attributes/relationships than a div and it's children.
As far as inline-block and inline-table see: What is the difference between inline-block and inline-table?
This article (http://css-tricks.com/almanac/properties/d/display/) has some interesting information, specifically regarding all the different display properties related to a table.