GeneralBecos GeneralBecos - 9 months ago 73
Python Question

Performance comparison: insert vs build Python set operations

In python, is it faster to
a) Build a set from a list of n items
b) Insert n items into a set?

I found this page ( but it did not have enough information to conclude which was faster.

It seems, inserting items one at a time could in the worst case take O(n*n) time (given it uses dicts), and O(n*1) in the average case. Does initializing a set with a list offer any performance improvement?

Answer Source

In terms of O() complexity - it's definitely the same, because both approaches do exactly the same - insert n items into a set.

The difference comes from implementation: One clear advantage of initialization from an iterable is that you save a lot of Python-level function calls - the initialization from a iterable is done wholly on the C level (**).

Indeed, some tests on a list of 5,000,000 random integers shows that adding one by one is slower:

lst = [random.random() for i in xrange(5000000)]
set1 = set(lst)    # takes 2.4 seconds

set2 = set()       # takes 3.37 seconds
for item in lst:

(**) Looking inside the code of sets (Objects/setobject.c), eventually item insertion boils down to a call to set_add_key. When initializing from an iterable, this function is called in a tight C loop:

while ((key = PyIter_Next(it)) != NULL) {
  if (set_add_key(so, key) == -1) {
    return -1;

On the other hand, each call to set.add invokes attribute lookup, which resolves to the C set_add function, which in turn calls set_add_key. Since the item addition itself is relatively quick (the hash table implementation of Python is very efficient), these extra calls all build up.