suresh suresh - 1 year ago 40
Ruby Question

What is the use of symbols?

I heard that two symbols with the same name create only one memory area, but two strings with the same content create two memory areas.

  • What is the use of symbols?

  • Is symbol like a variable? If so, how can I assign a value to a symbol?

  • If I allocate memory only once for symbols with the same name, what am I doing with the symbols?

Answer Source

Ok, so the misunderstanding probably stems from this:

A symbol is not a variable, it is a value. like 9 is a value that is a number.

A symbol is a value that is kinda of roughly a string... it's just not a string that you can change... and because you can't change it, we can use a shortcut -> all symbols with the same name/value are stored in the same memory-spot (to save space).

You store the symbol into a variable, or use the value somewhere - eg as the key of a hash.... this last is probably one of the most common uses of a symbol.

you make a hash that contains key-value pairs eg:

thing_attrs = {:name => "My thing", :colour => "blue", :size => 6}
thing_attrs[:colour]  # 'blue'

In this has - the symbols are the keys you can use any object as a key, but symbols are good to use as they use english words, and are thus easy to understand what you're storing/fetching... much better than, say numbers. Imagine you had:

thing_attrs = {0 => "My thing", 1 => "blue", 2 => 6}
thing_attrs[1] # => "blue"

It would be annoying and hard to remember that attribute 1 is the colour... it's much nicer to give names that you can read when you're reading the code. Thus we have two options: a string, or a symbol.

There would be very little difference between the two. A string is definitely usable eg:

thing_attrs = {"name" => "My thing", "colour" => "blue", "size" => 6}
thing_attrs["colour"]  # 'blue'

except that as we know... symbols use less memory. Not a lot less, but enough less that in a large program, over time, you will notice it. So it has become a ruby-standard to use symbols instead.