Paul Ellery - 1 year ago 86

SQL Question

What is the caret (^) doing in the following SQL Server query?

`SELECT 1^2, 1^3;`

which gives the results:

`3 2`

I came across this before I found the SQUARE() function.

Answer Source

The caret (^) translates to the XOR operator, which is a "bitwise exclusive or". In plain english it means "either, but not both". Here's what it does:

```
decimal 1 = binary 001 decimal 1 = binary 001
XOR XOR
decimal 2 = binary 010 decimal 3 = binary 011
= =
decimal 3 = binary 011 decimal 2 = binary 010
```

More info on the MSDN page for bitwise operations.