Vatsal Manot - 8 months ago 99

Swift Question

Recursion is trivial with global functions in Swift. For example:

`func f()`

{

f()

}

However, a closure cannot refer to itself. For example:

`var f: (Void -> Void) =`

{

f()

}

yields the following error:

`Variable used within its own initial value`

Is there a workaround to this?

Answer

There is a workaround:

```
func unimplemented<T>() -> T
{
fatalError()
}
func recursive<T, U>(f: (@escaping (((T) -> U), T) -> U)) -> ((T) -> U)
{
var g: ((T) -> U) = { _ in unimplemented() }
g = { f(g, $0) }
return g
}
```

`recursive`

is a function that takes a closure `(((T) -> U), T) -> U`

, where `((T) -> U)`

is a reference to a stripped version of the closure, and returns a usable function, `g`

.

`g`

is initially assigned a fake function (which crashes upon call). This is done to enable recursion for a new value of `g`

, where `g`

is passed to `f`

along with an input value of `T`

. It is important to note that `g`

in `g = { f(g, $0) }`

refers to itself, and not the fake function assigned to it earlier. So whenever the `((T) -> U)`

parameter is referenced in `f`

, it is a reference to `g`

, which in turn references itself.

This function allows for inline recursion such as in the following:

```
recursive { f, x in x != 10 ? f(x + 1) : "success" }(0)
```

This function recurs a total of 11 times, without the need to declare a single variable.

**Update:** This now works with Swift 3 preview 6!

Personally speaking for a moment here, I find this to be a rather elegant solution because I feel that it simplifies my code to the bare minimum. A Y combinator approach, such as the one below

```
func recursive<T, U>(_ f: (@escaping (@escaping (T) -> U) -> ((T) -> U))) -> ((T) -> U)
{
return { x in return f(recursive(f))(x) }
}
```

would have me return a function, an escaping closure within an escaping closure at that!

```
recursive { f in { x in x != 10 ? f(x + 1) : "success" } }(0)
```

The code above would be invalid if not for the inner `@escaping`

attribute. It also requires another set of braces, which makes it look more verbose than what I'm comfortable with when writing inline code.