KnowItAllWannabe - 11 months ago 49
C++ Question

# What is the maximum reference count in std::shared_ptr? What happens if you try to exceed it?

If we assume that

std::shared_ptr
stores a reference count (which I realize the standard does not require, but I am unaware of any implementations that don't), that reference count has a limited number of bits, and that means there is a maximum number of references that are supported. That leads to two questions:

• What is this maximum value?

• What happens if you try to exceed it (e.g., by copying a std::shared_ptr that refers to an object with the maximum reference count)? Note that
std::shared_ptr
's copy constructor is declared
noexcept
.

Does the standard shed any light on either of these questions? How about common implementations, e.g., gcc, MSVC, Boost?

We can get some information from the shared_ptr::use_count() function. §20.7.2.2.5 says:

long use_count() const noexcept;


Returns: the number of shared_ptr objects, *this included, that share ownership with *this, or 0 when *this is empty.

[Note: use_count() is not necessarily efficient.—end note ]

At first sight the long return type seems to answer the first question. However the note seems to imply that shared_ptr is free to use any type of reference counting it wants to, including things like a list of references. If this were the case then theoretically there would be no maximum reference count (although there would certainly be a practical limit).

There is no other reference to limits on the number of references to the same object that I could find.

It's interesting to note that use_count is documented to both not throw and (obviously) to report the count correctly; unless the implementation does use a long member for the count I don't see how both of these can be theoretically guaranteed at all times.