Jessup Jong Jessup Jong - 1 year ago 71
C Question

Reading a jpeg file byte by byte

For the class cs50, I have to read in jpeg files byte by byte from a memory card in order to look at the header information. The file compiles well, but whenever I execute the file, it returns a "segmentation fault(core dumped)" message.

Edit) Okay, now I know why I have to use an "unsigned char" instead of "int*". Can someone tell me how I can store information into files within scope for this particular code? Right now, I am trying to store information outside of an if() condition, and I don't think the fread function is actually accessing the "image" file I opened.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>

FILE * image = NULL;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
FILE* infile = fopen("card.raw", "r");
if (infile == NULL)
printf("Could not open.\n");
return 1;
unsigned char storage[512];
int number = 0;
int b = floor((number) / 100);
int c = floor(((number) - (b * 100))/ 10);
int d = floor(((number) - (b * 100) - (c * 10)));
int writing = 0;
char string[5];
char* extension = ".jpg";

while (fread(&storage, sizeof(storage), 1, infile))

if (storage == NULL)

if (storage[0] == 0xff && storage[1] == 0xd8 && storage[2] == 0xff)
if (storage[3] == 0xe0 || storage[3] == 0xe1)

if (image != NULL)
sprintf(string, "%d%d%d%s", b, c, d, extension);
image = fopen(string, "w");
writing = 1;
if (writing == 1 && storage != NULL)
fwrite(storage, sizeof(storage), 1, image);

if (writing == 1 && storage != NULL)
fwrite(storage, sizeof(storage), 1, image);

if (storage == NULL)



return 0;

This is the problem set just in case my explanation is not clear.


In anticipation of this problem set, I spent the past several days snapping photos of people I know, all of which were saved by my
digital camera as JPEGs on a 1GB CompactFlash (CF) card. (It’s
possible I actually spent the past several days on Facebook instead.)
Unfortunately, I’m not very good with computers, and I somehow deleted
them all! Thankfully, in the computer world, "deleted" tends not to
mean "deleted" so much as "forgotten." My computer insists that the CF
card is now blank, but I’m pretty sure it’s lying to me.
Write in ~/Dropbox/pset4/jpg/recover.c a program that recovers these photos.

Okay, here’s the thing. Even though JPEGs are more complicated than BMPs, JPEGs have "signatures," patterns of bytes that distinguish
them from other file formats. In fact, most JPEGs begin with one of
two sequences of bytes. Specifically, the first four bytes of most
JPEGs are either
0xff 0xd8 0xff 0xe0 or 0xff 0xd8 0xff 0xe1
from first byte to fourth byte, left to right. Odds are, if you find one of these patterns of bytes on a disk known to store photos
(e.g., my CF card), they demark the start of a JPEG. (To be sure, you
might encounter these patterns on some disk purely by chance, so data
recovery isn’t an exact science.)

Fortunately, digital cameras tend to store photographs contiguously on CF cards, whereby each photo is stored immediately
after the previously taken photo. Accordingly, the start of a JPEG
usually demarks the end of another. However, digital cameras generally
initialize CF cards with a FAT file system whose "block size" is 512
bytes (B). The implication is that these cameras only write to those
cards in units of 512 B. A photo that’s 1 MB (i.e.,
1,048,576 B) thus takes up 1048576 ÷ 512 = 2048 "blocks" on a CF card. But so does a photo that’s, say, one byte smaller (i.e.,
1,048,575 B)! The wasted space on disk is called "slack space."
Forensic investigators often look at slack space for remnants of
suspicious data.

The implication of all these details is that you, the investigator, can probably write a program that iterates over a copy
of my CF card, looking for JPEGs' signatures. Each time you find a
signature, you can open a new file for writing and start filling that
file with bytes from my CF card, closing that file only once you
encounter another signature. Moreover, rather than read my CF card’s
bytes one at a time, you can read 512 of them at a time into a buffer
for efficiency’s sake. Thanks to FAT, you can trust that JPEGs'
signatures will be "block-aligned." That is, you need only look for
those signatures in a block’s first four bytes.

Realize, of course, that JPEGs can span contiguous blocks. Otherwise, no JPEG could be larger than 512 B. But the last byte of a
JPEG might not fall at the very end of a block. Recall the possibility
of slack space. But not to worry. Because this CF card was brand- new
when I started snapping photos, odds are it’d been "zeroed" (i.e.,
filled with 0s) by the manufacturer, in which case any slack space
will be filled with 0s. It’s okay if those trailing 0s end up in the
JPEGs you recover; they should still be viewable.
Now, I only have one CF card, but there are a whole lot of you! And so I’ve gone ahead and created a "forensic image" of the card,
storing its contents, byte after byte, in a file called card.raw . So
that you don’t waste time iterating over millions of 0s unnecessarily,
I’ve only imaged the first few megabytes of the CF card. But you
should ultimately find that the image contains 16 JPEGs. As usual, you
can open the file programmatically with
fopen , as in the below. FILE* file = fopen("card.raw", "r");
Notice, incidentally, that ~/Dropbox/pset4/jpg contains only recover.c, but it’s devoid of any code. (We leave it to you to decide
how to implement and compile recover!) For simplicity, you should
hard-code "card.raw" in your program; your program need not accept any
command-line arguments. When executed, though, your program should
recover every one of the JPEGs from card.raw, storing each as a
separate file in your current working directory. Your program should
number the files it
outputs by naming each , ###.jpg where ### is three-digit decimal number from 000 on up. (Befriend sprintf.) You need not try to
recover the JPEGs' original names. To

check whether the JPEGs your program spit out are correct, simply double-click and take a look! If each photo appears intact,
your operation was likely a success!
Odds are, though, the JPEGs that the first draft of your code spits out won’t be correct. (If you open them up and don’t see
anything, they’re probably not correct!) Execute the command below to
delete all JPEGs in your current working directory.
rm *.jpg
If you’d rather not be prompted to confirm each deletion, execute the command below instead.
rm -f *.jpg
Just be careful with that -f switch, as it "forces" deletion without prompting you.

Answer Source
int* storage[512];

You define a pointer to a memory location for 512 ints, but you don't actually reserve the space (only the pointer.

I suspect you just want

int storage[512];

After this, storage is still a pointer, but now it actually points to 512 ints. Though I still think you don't want this. You need 'bytes' not ints. The nearest C has are unsigned char. So the final declaration is:

unsigned char storage[512];

Why? Because read reads into consecutive bytes. If you read into ints, then you will read 4 bytes into each int (because an int occupies 4 bytes).