BasicWolf BasicWolf - 10 months ago 126
Python Question

Python, WSGI, multiprocessing and shared data

I am a bit confused about multiproessing feature of mod_wsgi and about a general design of WSGI applications that would be executed on WSGI servers with multiprocessing ability.

Consider the following directive:

WSGIDaemonProcess example processes=5 threads=1

If I understand correctly, mod_wsgi will spawn 5 Python (e.g. CPython) processes and any of these processes can receive a request from a user.

The documentation says that:

Where shared data needs to be visible to all application instances, regardless of which child process they execute in, and changes made to
the data by one application are immediately available to another,
including any executing in another child process, an external data
store such as a database or shared memory must be used. Global
variables in normal Python modules cannot be used for this purpose.

But in that case it gets really heavy when one wants to be sure that an app runs in any WSGI conditions (including multiprocessing ones).

For example, a simple variable which contains the current amount of connected users - should it be process-safe read/written from/to memcached, or a DB or (if such out-of-the-standard-library mechanisms are available) shared memory?

And will the code like

counter = 0

def login():
counter += 1

def logout():
counter -= 1

def show_users_count():
return counter

behave unpredictably in multiprocessing environment?

Thank you!

Answer Source

There are several aspects to consider in your question.

First, the interaction between apache MPM's and mod_wsgi applications. If you run the mod_wsgi application in embedded mode (no WSGIDaemonProcess needed, WSGIProcessGroup %{GLOBAL}) you inherit multiprocessing/multithreading from the apache MPM's. This should be the fastest option, and you end up having multiple processes and multiple threads per process, depending on your MPM configuration. On the contrary if you run mod_wsgi in daemon mode, with WSGIDaemonProcess <name> [options] and WSGIProcessGroup <name>, you have fine control on multiprocessing/multithreading at the cost of a small overhead.

Within a single apache2 server you may define zero, one, or more named WSGIDaemonProcesses, and each application can be run in one of these processes (WSGIProcessGroup <name>) or run in embedded mode with WSGIProcessGroup %{GLOBAL}.

You can check multiprocessing/multithreading by inspecting the wsgi.multithread and wsgi.multiprocess variables.

With your configuration WSGIDaemonProcess example processes=5 threads=1 you have 5 independent processes, each with a single thread of execution: no global data, no shared memory, since you are not in control of spawning subprocesses, but mod_wsgi is doing it for you. To share a global state you already listed some possible options: a DB to which your processes interface, some sort of file system based persistence, a daemon process (started outside apache) and socket based IPC.

As pointed out by Roland Smith, the latter could be implemented using a high level API by multiprocessing.managers: outside apache you create and start a BaseManager server process

m = multiprocessing.managers.BaseManager(address=('', 12345), authkey='secret')

and inside you apps you connect:

m = multiprocessing.managers.BaseManager(address=('', 12345), authkey='secret')

The example above is dummy, since m has no useful method registered, but here (python docs) you will find how to create and proxy an object (like the counter in your example) among your processes.

A final comment on your example, with processes=5 threads=1. I understand that this is just an example, but in real world applications I suspect that performance will be comparable with respect to processes=1 threads=5: you should go into the intricacies of sharing data in multiprocessing only if the expected performance boost over the 'single process many threads' model is significant.