Artimosha Artimosha - 1 month ago 13
C++ Question

acos(double) gives different result on x64 and x32 Visual Studio

acos(double)
gives different result on x64 and x32 Visual Studio.

printf("%.30g\n", double(acosl(0.49990774364240564)));
printf("%.30g\n", acos(0.49990774364240564));


on x64:
1.0473040763868076


on x32:
1.0473040763868078


on linux4.4 x32 and x64 with sse enabled:
1.0473040763868078


is there a way to make VSx64
acos()
give me
1.0473040763868078
as result?

Answer Source

TL:DR: this is normal and you can't reasonably change it.


The 32-bit library may be using 80-bit FP values in x87 registers for its temporaries, avoiding rounding off to 64-bit double after every operation. (Unless there's a whole separate library, compiling your own code to use SSE doesn't change what's inside the library, or even the calling convention for passing data to the library. But since 32-bit passes double and float in memory on the stack, a library is free to load it with SSE2 or with x87. Still, you don't get the performance advantage of passing FP values in xmm registers unless it's impossible for non-SSE code to use the library.)

It's also possible that they're different simply because they use a different order of operations, producing different temporaries along the way. That's less plausible, unless they're separately hand-written in asm. If they're built from the same C source (without "unsafe" FP optimizations), then the compiler isn't allowed to reorder things, because of this non-associative behaviour of FP math.


glibc's libm (used on Linux) typically favours precision over speed, so its giving you the correctly-rounded result out to the last bit of the mantissa for both 32 and 64-bit. The IEEE FP standard only requires the basic operations (+ - * / FMA and FP remainder) to be "correctly rounded" out to the last bit of the mantissa. (i.e. rounding error of at most 0.5 ulp). (The exact result, according to calc, is 1.047304076386807714.... Keep in mind that double (on x86 with normal compilers) is IEEE754 binary64, so internally the mantissa and exponent are in base2. If you print enough extra decimal digits, though, you can tell that ...7714 should round up to ...78, although really you should print more digits in case they're not zero beyond that. I'm just assuming it's ...78000.)

So Microsoft's 64-bit library implementation produces 1.0473040763868076 and there's pretty much nothing you can do about it, other than not use it. (e.g. find your own acos() implementation and use it.) But FP determinism is hard, even if you limit yourself to just x86 with SSE. See Does any floating point-intensive code produce bit-exact results in any x86-based architecture?. If you limit yourself to a single compiler, it can be possible if you avoid complicated library functions like acos().

You might be able to get the 32-bit library version to produce the same value as the 64-bit version, if it uses x87 and changing the x87 precision setting affects it. But the other way around is not possible: SSE2 has separate instructions for 64-bit double and 32-bit float, and always rounds after every instruction, so you can't change any setting that will increase precision result. (You could change the SSE rounding mode, and that will change the result, but not in a good way!)

See also: