xolodec - 1 year ago 71

Python Question

I have come across a problem which is to rewrite a piece of code in vectorized form. The code shown below is a simplified illustration of initial problem

`K = 20`

h, w = 15, 20

H, W = 1000-h, 2000-w

q = np.random.randint(0, 20, size=(H, W, K)) # random just for illustration

Q = np.zeros((H+h, W+w, K))

for n in range(H):

for m in range(W):

Q[n:n+h, m:m+w, :] += q[n, m, :]

This code takes long to execute and it seems to me it is rather simple to allow vectorized implementation.

I am aware of numpy's

`s_`

`Q`

`q`

I guess that

`np.add.at`

`IndexError: failed to coerce slice entry of type numpy.ndarray to integer`

for any attempt i make.

Maybe there is some another numpy's magic which I am unaware of and which could help me in my task but it seems extremely difficult to google for it.

Recommended for you: Get network issues from **WhatsUp Gold**. **Not end users.**

Answer Source

Well you are basically summing across sliding windows along the first and second axes, which in signal processing domain is termed as `convolution`

. For two axes that would be `2D convolution`

. Now, Scipy has it implemented as `convolve2d`

and could be used for each slice along the third axis.

Thus, we would have an implementation with it, like so -

```
from scipy.signal import convolve2d
kernel = np.ones((h,w),dtype=int)
m,n,r = q.shape[0]+h-1, q.shape[1]+w-1, q.shape[2]
out = np.empty((m,n,r),dtype=q.dtype)
for i in range(r):
out[...,i] = convolve2d(q[...,i],kernel)
```

As it turns out, we can use `fftconvolve`

from the same repo that allows us to work with higher-dimensional arrays. This would get us the output in a fully vectorized way, like so -

```
from scipy.signal import fftconvolve
out = fftconvolve(q,np.ones((h,w,1),dtype=int))
```

**Runtime test**

Function definitions -

```
def original_app(q,K,h,w,H,W):
Q = np.zeros((H+h-1, W+w-1, K))
for n in range(H):
for m in range(W):
Q[n:n+h, m:m+w, :] += q[n, m, :]
return Q
def convolve2d_app(q,K,h,w,H,W):
kernel = np.ones((h,w),dtype=int)
m,n,r = q.shape[0]+h-1, q.shape[1]+w-1, q.shape[2]
out = np.empty((m,n,r),dtype=q.dtype)
for i in range(r):
out[...,i] = convolve2d(q[...,i],kernel)
return out
def fftconvolve_app(q,K,h,w,H,W):
return fftconvolve(q,np.ones((h,w,1),dtype=int))
```

Timings and verification -

```
In [128]: # Setup inputs
...: K = 20
...: h, w = 15, 20
...: H, W = 200-h, 400-w
...: q = np.random.randint(0, 20, size=(H, W, K))
...:
In [129]: %timeit original_app(q,K,h,w,H,W)
1 loops, best of 3: 2.05 s per loop
In [130]: %timeit convolve2d_app(q,K,h,w,H,W)
1 loops, best of 3: 2.05 s per loop
In [131]: %timeit fftconvolve_app(q,K,h,w,H,W)
1 loops, best of 3: 233 ms per loop
In [132]: np.allclose(original_app(q,K,h,w,H,W),convolve2d_app(q,K,h,w,H,W))
Out[132]: True
In [133]: np.allclose(original_app(q,K,h,w,H,W),fftconvolve_app(q,K,h,w,H,W))
Out[133]: True
```

So, it seems `fftconvolve`

based approach is doing really well there!

Recommended from our users: **Dynamic Network Monitoring from WhatsUp Gold from IPSwitch**. ** Free Download**