fred basset fred basset - 1 month ago 4
C Question

Concise way to implement round() in C?

The embedded C I'm using doesn't have a round() function it it's math lib, what would be a concise way to implement this in C? I was thinking of printing it to a string, looking for the decimal place, then finding the first char after the period, then rounding up if >= 5, else down. etc. Was wondering if there's something more clever.

Thanks,
Fred

Answer

You could re-invent the wheel, as many other answers suggest. Alternately, you could use someone else's wheel -- I'd suggest Newlib's, which is BSD-licensed and intended for use on embedded systems. It properly handles negative numbers, NaNs, infinities, and cases which are not representable as integers (due to being too large), as well as doing so in an efficient manner that uses exponents and masking rather than generally-costlier floating-point operations. In addition, it's regularly tested, so you know it doesn't have glaring corner-case bugs in it.

The Newlib source can be a bit awkward to navigate, so here are the bits you want:

Float version: https://sourceware.org/git/gitweb.cgi?p=newlib-cygwin.git;a=blob;f=newlib/libm/common/sf_round.c;hb=master

Double version: https://sourceware.org/git/gitweb.cgi?p=newlib-cygwin.git;a=blob;f=newlib/libm/common/s_round.c;hb=master

Word-extraction macros defined here: https://sourceware.org/git/gitweb.cgi?p=newlib-cygwin.git;a=blob;f=newlib/libm/common/fdlibm.h;hb=master

If you need other files from there, the parent directory is this one: https://sourceware.org/git/gitweb.cgi?p=newlib-cygwin.git;a=tree;f=newlib/libm/common;hb=master

For the record, here's the code for the float version. As you can see, there's a bit of complexity required to deal with all the possible cases correctly.

float roundf(x)
{
  int signbit;
  __uint32_t w;
  /* Most significant word, least significant word. */
  int exponent_less_127;

  GET_FLOAT_WORD(w, x);

  /* Extract sign bit. */
  signbit = w & 0x80000000;

  /* Extract exponent field. */
  exponent_less_127 = (int)((w & 0x7f800000) >> 23) - 127;

  if (exponent_less_127 < 23)
    {
      if (exponent_less_127 < 0)
        {
          w &= 0x80000000;
          if (exponent_less_127 == -1)
            /* Result is +1.0 or -1.0. */
            w |= ((__uint32_t)127 << 23);
        }
      else
        {
          unsigned int exponent_mask = 0x007fffff >> exponent_less_127;
          if ((w & exponent_mask) == 0)
            /* x has an integral value. */
            return x;

          w += 0x00400000 >> exponent_less_127;
          w &= ~exponent_mask;
        }
    }
  else
    {
      if (exponent_less_127 == 128)
        /* x is NaN or infinite. */
        return x + x;
      else
        return x;
    }
  SET_FLOAT_WORD(x, w);
  return x;
}