Raymond Hettinger Raymond Hettinger - 1 year ago 109
reST (reStructuredText) Question

Is it a bug to omit an Accept */* header in an HTTP/1.0 Request for a REST API

I'm trying to determine whether it is a bug that Python's urllib.urlopen() function omits an HTTP Accept header when making simple REST API requests.

The Facebook Graph API seems to notice whether the header is present or not:

GET /zuck HTTP/1.0
Host: graph.facebook.com
Accept: */*

Without the accept header, the returned content-type of
application/json; charset=UTF-8
text/javascript; charset=UTF-8
. That may be a bug in Facebook's REST API or it may be a legitimate response to a missing accept header.

I notice the command-line tools like curl use
Accept: */*
by default:

$ curl -v https://graph.facebook.com/zuck
> GET /zuck HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.30.0
> Host: graph.facebook.com
> Accept: */*

Likewise, the Python requests package also uses
Accept: */*
as a default:

def default_headers():
return CaseInsensitiveDict({
'User-Agent': default_user_agent(),
'Accept-Encoding': ', '.join(('gzip', 'deflate')),
'Accept': '*/*',
'Connection': 'keep-alive',

I presume that curl and requests add the default for a reason, but I'm not sure what that reason is.

RFC 2616 for HTTP/1.1 says that
*/* indicates all media types
and that
if no Accept header field is present, then it is assumed that the client accepts all media types
. This would seem to indicate that
Accept: */*
is optional and its omission would have no effect. That said, Python is using HTTP/1.0 and the RFCs are silent about the effect of omitting the header.

I would like to determine whether the best practice is to include
Accept: */*
as curl and requests do or whether it is okay to omit is as Python's urllib.urlopen() does.

The question is important because I'm in a position to fix urllib.urlopen() if it is determined to be buggy or if it is problematic for use with REST APIs as commonly implemented using HTTP/1.0:

>>> import httplib
>>> httplib.HTTPConnection.debuglevel = 1
>>> import urllib
>>> u = urllib.urlopen('https://graph.facebook.com/zuck')
send: 'GET /zuck HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: graph.facebook.com\r\nUser-Agent: Python-urllib/1.17\r\n\r\n'

The related questions on StackOverflow aren't helpful for this question. What does 'Accept: */*' mean under Client section of Request Headers? asks what
means (we already know that it means all media types) and Send a curl request with no Accept header? asks how to omit the accept header in a curl request. My question focuses on whether you should include
and whether it is a bug to omit it.

Answer Source

Reading-up about proxy servers (like NGinx and Varnish) helped me figure out what is going on.

While the presence of an Accept: */* header shouldn't make a difference to a server, it can and likely will make a difference to a proxy server when the response includes a Vary: Accept header. In particular, the proxy server is allowed to cache different results for different or omitted Accept headers.

Facebook has updated (and closed-off) its API since this question was asked, but at the time, here is the scenario that caused the observed effects. For backwards compatibility reasons, Facebook was using content negotiation and responding with text/javascript; charset=UTF-8 when getting the request that either omitted the Accept header or had a browser-like Accept: text/html;text/*;*/*. However, when it received Accept: */*, it returned the more modern application/json; charset=UTF-8. When a proxy server receives a request without an accept header, it can give either one of the cached responses; however, when it gets Accept: */*, it always gives the last response.

So here is why you should include the Accept: */* header: If you do, then a caching proxy will alway return the same content type. If omit the header, the response can vary depending on the results of the last user's content negotiation. REST API clients tend to rely on always getting the same content type back every time.

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