Johny19 Johny19 - 1 year ago 81
Java Question

Spring, JPA, and Hibernate - how to increment a counter without concurrency issues

I'm playing around a bit with Spring and JPA/Hibernate and I'm a bit confused on the right way to increment a counter in a table.

My REST API needs to increment and decrement some value in the database depending on the user action (in the example bellow, liking or disliking a tag will make the counter increment or decrement by one in the Tag Table)

tagRepository is a JpaRepository (Spring-data)
and I have configured the transaction like this

<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager"/>

public class TestController {

TagService tagService

public void increaseTag() {
public void decreaseTag() {


public class TagServiceImpl implements TagService {

pubic void decreaseTagcount() {
Tag tag = tagRepository.findOne(tagId);

pubic void increaseTagcount() {
Tag tag = tagRepository.findOne(tagId);

private void increment(Tag tag) {
tag.setCount(tag.getCount() + 1);

private void decrement(Tag tag) {
tag.setCount(tag.getCount() - 1);;

As you can see I have put on purpose a sleep of 20 second on increment JUST before the .save() to be able to test a concurrency scenario.

initial tag counter = 10;

1) A user calls increaseTag and the code hits the sleep so the value
of the entity = 11 and the value in the DB is still 10

2) a user calls the decreaseTag and goes through all the code. the
value is the database is now = 9

3) The sleeps finishes and hits the .save with the entity having a
count of 11 and then hits .save()

When I check the database, the value for that tag is now equal to 11.. when in reality (at least what I would like to achieve) it would be equal to 10

Is this behaviour normal? Or the @Transactional annotation is not doing is work?

Answer Source

The simplest solution is to delegate the concurrency to your database and simply rely on the database isolation level lock on the currently modified rows:

The increment is as simple as this:

UPDATE Tag t set t.count = t.count + 1 WHERE = :id;

and the decrement query is:

UPDATE Tag t set t.count = t.count - 1 WHERE = :id;

The UPDATE query takes a lock on the modified rows, preventing other transactions from modifying the same row, before the current transaction commits (as long as you don't use READ_UNCOMMITTED).