Lost1 Lost1 - 2 months ago 13
Python Question

why does some functions need () but some don't?

My apologies if this is a stupid question but

if we have


x.imag would give its imaginary part
x.conjugate() would give its complex conjugate. Why do we need to put a () to call the conjugate function?

I am thinking whether x can be thought to be a struct in C++

imag is a public attribute of x, where conjugate is a member function. Is this way of thinking correct? I apologise if this makes no sense. Admittedly, my knowledge of C++ and Python are both quite limited.


x is not a struct, it is an object of type complex (although sometimes it helps to think of objects as structs with methods bound to them).

>>> type(x)
<class 'complex'>
>>> x = 3+5j
>>> type(x)
<class 'complex'>

x.imag is not a function, it's an attribute of the object x that is a float object. An attribute does not have to be called with the parentheses () in order to retrieve its value. Its value is 5 in your example. You can test if it's a function by calling callable on it. float objects are not callable.

>>> x.imag
>>> type(x.imag)
<class 'float'>
>>> callable(x.imag)

x.conjugate is a function, since callable(x.conjucate) returns True. You call the function by putting the parentheses () after it with the function parameters inside the parentheses. When called, it returns a new object of type complex, which in turn also has the method conjugate which can be called.

>>> x.conjugate
<built-in method conjugate of complex object at 0x00000000034D2C90>
>>> callable(x.conjugate)
>>> x.conjugate()
>>> type(x.conjugate())
<class 'complex'>
>>> x.conjugate().conjugate()