Noah Noah - 8 days ago 9
C++ Question

memory usage by a process in c++ program

In My C++ program I use

* m_Map= new map<int, list<object> >();
delete(m_Map);
m_Map->erase(TxId);


I added 1000000 elements to map and I checked time to time in the loop the memory usage of the process

for(int x=1;x<=1000000;x++){
m_Map->emplace(txId, OBject);
if(x%100000==0) {
process_mem_usage(vm, rss);
cout << "after add a key VM: " << vm << "; RSS: " << rss << endl;
}
}


then I again print the process RSS memory usage by erasing one by one element from the map

for(int x=1;x<=1000000;x++){
m_Map->erase(x);
if(x%100000==0) {
process_mem_usage(vm, rss);
cout << "after earse a key VM: " << vm << "; RSS: " << rss << endl;
}
}


using this memory usage function

void process_mem_usage(double& vm_usage, double& resident_set)
{
using std::ios_base;
using std::ifstream;
using std::string;

vm_usage = 0.0;
resident_set = 0.0;

// 'file' stat seems to give the most reliable results
//
ifstream stat_stream("/proc/self/stat",ios_base::in);

// dummy vars for leading entries in stat that we don't care about
//
string pid, comm, state, ppid, pgrp, session, tty_nr;
string tpgid, flags, minflt, cminflt, majflt, cmajflt;
string utime, stime, cutime, cstime, priority, nice;
string O, itrealvalue, starttime;

// the two fields we want
//
unsigned long vsize;
long rss;

stat_stream >> pid >> comm >> state >> ppid >> pgrp >> session >> tty_nr
>> tpgid >> flags >> minflt >> cminflt >> majflt >> cmajflt
>> utime >> stime >> cutime >> cstime >> priority >> nice
>> O >> itrealvalue >> starttime >> vsize >> rss; // don't care about the rest

stat_stream.close();

long page_size_kb = sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE) / 1024; // in case x86-64 is configured to use 2MB pages
vm_usage = vsize / 1024.0;
resident_set = rss * page_size_kb;
}


I came up with this result I can't understand really.

Initially VM: 12660; RSS: 1120
after add a key VM: 28240; RSS: 16960
after add a key VM: 43816; RSS: 32536
after add a key VM: 59524; RSS: 48112
after add a key VM: 75100; RSS: 63688
after add a key VM: 90676; RSS: 79264
after add a key VM: 106384; RSS: 95104
after add a key VM: 121960; RSS: 110680
after add a key VM: 137672; RSS: 126256
after add a key VM: 153248; RSS: 141832
after add a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408
after earse a key VM: 168824; RSS: 157408


after destroying the map VM: 12672; RSS: 1536


What I feel is it should free the memory when I delete the key,value pairs from the map.but as you can see it will not free the memory untill I delete(free) the map finally

delete(m_Map);


some one can explain how it happens in c++,I looked at c++ map::emplace,erase function documentation.which does not give any clue about this..

Answer

You can think that processes have two different memory allocators. First one allocator is used when you request memory from the kernel(sbrk(2), mmap(2)). Second one is usespace allocator which slices memory you got from first allocator to your requests from the C++ code.

When you do new/malloc - you request second allocator for memory(which can use first allocator to request more memory from kernel if it cannot fulfill your request). When you do delete/free - you give up memory to second allocator which can(but not must!) return memory to first allocator and to kernel.

So it doesn't necessary mean, that when you do new,malloc/delete,free it will immediately result in changes of RSS or VM.