codekaizen codekaizen - 1 month ago 6
C# Question

Implicit conversion to System.Double with a nullable struct via compiler generated locals: why is this failing?

Given the following, why does the InvalidCastException get thrown? I can't see why it should be outside of a bug (this is in x86; x64 crashes with a 0xC0000005 in clrjit.dll).

class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
MyDouble? my = new MyDouble(1.0);
Boolean compare = my == 0.0;
}

struct MyDouble
{
Double? _value;

public MyDouble(Double value)
{
_value = value;
}

public static implicit operator Double(MyDouble value)
{
if (value._value.HasValue)
{
return value._value.Value;
}

throw new InvalidCastException("MyDouble value cannot convert to System.Double: no value present.");
}
}
}


Here is the CIL generated for
Main()
:

.method private hidebysig static void Main(string[] args) cil managed
{
.entrypoint
.maxstack 3
.locals init (
[0] valuetype [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<valuetype Program/MyDouble> my,
[1] bool compare,
[2] valuetype [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<valuetype Program/MyDouble> CS$0$0000,
[3] valuetype [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<float64> CS$0$0001)
L_0000: nop
L_0001: ldloca.s my
L_0003: ldc.r8 1
L_000c: newobj instance void Program/MyDouble::.ctor(float64)
L_0011: call instance void [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<valuetype Program/MyDouble>::.ctor(!0)
L_0016: nop
L_0017: ldloc.0
L_0018: stloc.2
L_0019: ldloca.s CS$0$0000
L_001b: call instance bool [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<valuetype Program/MyDouble>::get_HasValue()
L_0020: brtrue.s L_002d
L_0022: ldloca.s CS$0$0001
L_0024: initobj [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<float64>
L_002a: ldloc.3
L_002b: br.s L_003e
L_002d: ldloca.s CS$0$0000
L_002f: call instance !0 [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<valuetype Program/MyDouble>::GetValueOrDefault()
L_0034: call float64 Program/MyDouble::op_Implicit(valuetype Program/MyDouble)
L_0039: newobj instance void [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<float64>::.ctor(!0)
L_003e: stloc.3
L_003f: ldloca.s CS$0$0001
L_0041: call instance !0 [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<float64>::GetValueOrDefault()
L_0046: call float64 Program/MyDouble::op_Implicit(valuetype Program/MyDouble)
L_004b: conv.r8
L_004c: ldc.r8 0
L_0055: bne.un.s L_0060
L_0057: ldloca.s CS$0$0001
L_0059: call instance bool [mscorlib]System.Nullable`1<float64>::get_HasValue()
L_005e: br.s L_0061
L_0060: ldc.i4.0
L_0061: stloc.1
L_0062: ret
}


Note lines 0x2D - 0x3E in the IL. It retrieves the
MyDouble?
instance, calls
GetValueOrDefault
on it, calls the implicit operator on that, and then wraps the result in a
Double?
and stores it in the compiler-generated
CS$0$0001
local. In lines 0x3F to 0x55, we retrieve the
CS$0$0001
value, 'unwrap' via
GetValueOrDefault
and then compare to 0... BUT WAIT A MINUTE! What is that extra call to
MyDouble::op_Implicit
doing on line 0x46?

If we debug the C# program, we indeed see 2 calls to
implicit operator Double(MyDouble value)
, and it is the 2nd call that fails, since
value
is not initialized.

What is going on here?

Answer

It is clearly a C# compiler bug. Thanks for bringing it to my attention.

Incidentally, it is a bad practice to have a user defined implicit conversion operator that throws an exception; the documentation states that implicit conversions should be those that never throw. Are you sure you don't want this to be an explicit conversion?

Anyway, back to the bug.

The bug repros in C# 3 and 4 but not in C# 2. Which means that it was my fault. I probably caused the bug when I redid the user-defined lifted implicit operator code in order to make it work with expression tree lambdas. Sorry about that! That code is very tricky, and apparently I did not test it adequately.

What the code is supposed to do is:

First, overload resolution attempts to resolve the meaning of ==. The best == operator for which both arguments are valid is the lifted operator that compares two nullable doubles. Therefore it should be analyzed as:

Boolean compare = (double?)my == (double?)0.0; 

(If you write the code like this then it does the right thing in C# 3 and 4.)

The meaning of the lifted == operator is:

  • evaluate both arguments
  • if both are null then the result is true -- clearly this cannot happen in this case
  • if one is null and the other is not then the result is false
  • if both are not null then both are unwrapped to double and compared as doubles.

Now the question is "what is the right way to evaluate the left hand side?"

We have here a lifted user-defined conversion operator from MyDouble? to double?. The correct behaviour is:

  • If "my" is null, then the result is a null double?.
  • If "my" is not null then the result is the user-defined conversion of my.Value to double, and then the conversion of that double to double?.

Clearly something is going wrong in this process.

I'll enter a bug in our database, but any fix will probably miss the deadline for changes that make it into the next service pack. I would be looking into workarounds if I were you. Again, apologies for the error.

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