Leonardo Acevedo Leonardo Acevedo - 1 month ago 7
Python Question

PySpark RDD filtered-out elements coming back

I am trying to implement a Sieve of Eratosthenes using PySpark.

For this, I am trying to apply many

filter
s to my RDD, but on each iteration, whatever was filtered out during the previous iterations keeps coming back, and I wonder why.

Here's the code:

from math import ceil
from math import sqrt

min_number = 2
max_number = 101

rdd = sc.parallelize(range(min_number, max_number), 4)
pivot = min_number

max_pivot = ceil(sqrt(max_number))

while pivot <= max_pivot:
print "RDD for pivot = " + str(pivot) + ":"
rdd = rdd.filter(lambda x: x <= pivot or x % pivot != 0)
pivot = rdd.filter(lambda x: x > pivot).reduce(min)
rdd.collect()


And the output:

Pivot = 2
[2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95, 97, 98, 100]
Pivot = 3
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99]
Pivot = 4
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99]
Pivot = 5
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100]
Pivot = 6
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100]
Pivot = 7
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100]
Pivot = 8
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100]
Pivot = 9
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99]
Pivot = 10
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100]
Pivot = 11
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100]


As you can see, on each iteration, only multiples of the current pivot are being filtered out, but numbers that had already being filtered out keep coming back, even when I replace the
rdd
reference on each iteration.

In case it is of any help, I am running PySpark 2.0.1 on Python 2.7.10 for Mac.

Thanks!

Answer

Python closures are evaluated when function is called, not when it is created (late binding).

As a result in the first iteration rdd is evaluated as:

(sc.parallelize(range(min_number, max_number), 4)
    .filter(lambda x: x <= 2 or x % 2 != 0))

in the second one:

(sc.parallelize(range(min_number, max_number), 4)
    .filter(lambda x: x <= 3 or x % 3 != 0)
    .filter(lambda x: x <= 3 or x % 3 != 0))

in the third one:

(sc.parallelize(range(min_number, max_number), 4)
    .filter(lambda x: x <= 4 or x % 4 != 0)
    .filter(lambda x: x <= 4 or x % 4 != 0)
    .filter(lambda x: x <= 4 or x % 4 != 0))

and each time pivot is resolved in the current scope.

Correct implementation:

while pivot <= max_pivot:
    def f(x, pivot=pivot):
        return x <= pivot or x % pivot != 0

    rdd = rdd.filter(f)
    pivot = rdd.filter(lambda x: x > pivot).min()