For example using this Wikipedia dump:
Is there an existing library for Python that I can use to create an array with the mapping of subjects and values?
It looks like you really want to be able to parse MediaWiki markup. There is a python library designed for this purpose called mwlib. You can use python's built-in XML packages to extract the page content from the API's response, then pass that content into mwlib's parser to produce an object representation that you can browse and analyse in code to extract the information you want. mwlib is BSD licensed.