I figured it out. Cordova version 4.0.0+, upon which Ionic depends, requires iOS 8.0+. It is hard-coded into the
IPHONEOS_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET = 8.0
This hard-coded value was overriding any changes I made in the Xcode GUI. I was able to get my project to deploy on my device by changing
For others who are also using Ionic/Cordova, I suppose the solution is disappointing but simple: only target iOS 8.0 and up.