I have a column in my database with type
5 May 2016
The date is not stored as a string. It is stored as an internal representation. The YYYY-MM-DD format is simply how MySQL outputs the date.
If you want to format the date differently, convert it to a string using
date_format() (see here). For your particular format:
select date_format(date, '%e %b %y')
(I should note that I personally much prefer the ANSI and ISO standard YYYY-MM-DD format.)
As for internationalization (support in other languages), you might want to start here in the documentation.