Chichi - 21 days ago 4x
Python Question

# Normal equation and Numpy 'least-squares', 'solve' methods difference in regression?

I am doing linear regression with multiple variables. I try to get thetas (coefficients) by using normal equation method (that uses matrix inverse), Numpy least-squares numpy.linalg.lstsq tool and np.linalg.solve tool. In my data I have n = 143 features and m = 13000 training examples.

For normal equation method with regularization I use this formula:

Source: Normal equations (Andrew Ng, Stanford)

Data preparation code:

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

path = 'DB2.csv'

data.insert(0, 'Ones', 1)
cols = data.shape[1]

X = data.iloc[:,0:cols-1]
y = data.iloc[:,cols-1:cols]

IdentitySize = X.shape[1]
IdentityMatrix= np.zeros((IdentitySize, IdentitySize))
np.fill_diagonal(IdentityMatrix, 1)
``````

For least squares method I use Numpy's numpy.linalg.lstsq. Here is Pyhton code:

``````lamb = 1
th = np.linalg.lstsq(X.T.dot(X) + lamb * IdentityMatrix, X.T.dot(y))[0]
``````

Also I used np.linalg.solve tool of numpy:

``````lamb = 1
XtX_lamb = X.T.dot(X) + lamb * IdentityMatrix
XtY = X.T.dot(y)
x = np.linalg.solve(XtX_lamb, XtY);
``````

For normal equation I use:

``````lamb = 1
xTx = X.T.dot(X) + lamb * IdentityMatrix
XtX = np.linalg.inv(xTx)
XtX_xT = XtX.dot(X.T)
theta = XtX_xT.dot(y)
``````

In all methods I used regularization. Here is results (theta coefficients) to see difference between these three approaches:

``````Normal equation:        np.linalg.lstsq         np.linalg.solve
[-27551.99918303]       [-27551.95276154]       [-27551.9991855]
[-940.27518383]         [-940.27520138]         [-940.27518383]
[-9332.54653964]        [-9332.55448263]        [-9332.54654461]
[-3149.02902071]        [-3149.03496582]        [-3149.02900965]
[-1863.25125909]        [-1863.2631435]         [-1863.25126344]
[-2779.91105618]        [-2779.92175308]        [-2779.91105347]
[-1226.60014026]        [-1226.61033117]        [-1226.60014192]
[-920.73334259]         [-920.74331432]         [-920.73334194]
[-6278.44238081]        [-6278.45496955]        [-6278.44237847]
[-2001.48544938]        [-2001.49566981]        [-2001.48545349]
[-715.79204971]         [-715.79664124]         [-715.79204921]
[ 4039.38847472]        [ 4039.38302499]        [ 4039.38847515]
[-2362.54853195]        [-2362.55280478]        [-2362.54853139]
[-12730.8039209]        [-12730.80866036]       [-12730.80392076]
[-24872.79868125]       [-24872.80203459]       [-24872.79867954]
[-3402.50791863]        [-3402.5140501]         [-3402.50793382]
[ 253.47894001]         [ 253.47177732]         [ 253.47892472]
[-5998.2045186]         [-5998.20513905]        [-5998.2045184]
[ 198.40560401]         [ 198.4049081]          [ 198.4056042]
[ 4368.97581411]        [ 4368.97175688]        [ 4368.97581426]
[-2885.68026222]        [-2885.68154407]        [-2885.68026205]
[ 1218.76602731]        [ 1218.76562838]        [ 1218.7660275]
[-1423.73583813]        [-1423.7369068]         [-1423.73583793]
[ 173.19125007]         [ 173.19086525]         [ 173.19125024]
[-3560.81709538]        [-3560.81650156]        [-3560.8170952]
[-142.68135768]         [-142.68162508]         [-142.6813575]
[-2010.89489111]        [-2010.89601322]        [-2010.89489092]
[-4463.64701238]        [-4463.64742877]        [-4463.64701219]
[ 17074.62997704]       [ 17074.62974609]       [ 17074.62997723]
[ 7917.75662561]        [ 7917.75682048]        [ 7917.75662578]
[-4234.16758492]        [-4234.16847544]        [-4234.16758474]
[-5500.10566329]        [-5500.106558]          [-5500.10566309]
[-5997.79002683]        [-5997.7904842]         [-5997.79002634]
[ 1376.42726683]        [ 1376.42629704]        [ 1376.42726705]
[ 6056.87496151]        [ 6056.87452659]        [ 6056.87496175]
[ 8149.0123667]         [ 8149.01209157]        [ 8149.01236827]
[-7273.3450484]         [-7273.34480382]        [-7273.34504827]
[-2010.61773247]        [-2010.61839251]        [-2010.61773225]
[-7917.81185096]        [-7917.81223606]        [-7917.81185084]
[ 8247.92773739]        [ 8247.92774315]        [ 8247.92773722]
[ 1267.25067823]        [ 1267.24677734]        [ 1267.25067832]
[ 2557.6208133]         [ 2557.62126916]        [ 2557.62081337]
[-5678.53744654]        [-5678.53820798]        [-5678.53744647]
[ 3406.41697822]        [ 3406.42040997]        [ 3406.41697836]
[-8371.23657044]        [-8371.2361594]         [-8371.23657035]
[ 15010.61728285]       [ 15010.61598236]       [ 15010.61728304]
[ 11006.21920273]       [ 11006.21711213]       [ 11006.21920284]
[-5930.93274062]        [-5930.93237071]        [-5930.93274048]
[-5232.84459862]        [-5232.84557665]        [-5232.84459848]
[ 3196.89304277]        [ 3196.89414431]        [ 3196.8930428]
[ 15298.53309912]       [ 15298.53496877]       [ 15298.53309919]
[ 4742.68631183]        [ 4742.6862601]         [ 4742.68631172]
[ 4423.14798495]        [ 4423.14765013]        [ 4423.14798546]
[-16153.50854089]       [-16153.51038489]       [-16153.50854123]
[-22071.50792741]       [-22071.49808389]       [-22071.50792408]
[-688.22903323]         [-688.2310229]          [-688.22904006]
[-1060.88119863]        [-1060.8829114]         [-1060.88120546]
[-101.75750066]         [-101.75776411]         [-101.75750831]
[ 4106.77311898]        [ 4106.77128502]        [ 4106.77311218]
[ 3482.99764601]        [ 3482.99518758]        [ 3482.99763924]
[-1100.42290509]        [-1100.42166312]        [-1100.4229119]
[ 20892.42685103]       [ 20892.42487476]       [ 20892.42684422]
[-5007.54075789]        [-5007.54265501]        [-5007.54076473]
[ 11111.83929421]       [ 11111.83734144]       [ 11111.83928704]
[ 9488.57342568]        [ 9488.57158677]        [ 9488.57341883]
[-2992.3070786]         [-2992.29295891]        [-2992.30708529]
[ 17810.57005982]       [ 17810.56651223]       [ 17810.57005457]
[-2154.47389712]        [-2154.47504319]        [-2154.47390285]
[-5324.34206726]        [-5324.33913623]        [-5324.34207293]
[-14981.89224345]       [-14981.8965674]        [-14981.89224973]
[-29440.90545197]       [-29440.90465897]       [-29440.90545704]
[-6925.31991443]        [-6925.32123144]        [-6925.31992383]
[ 104.98071593]         [ 104.97886085]         [ 104.98071152]
[-5184.94477582]        [-5184.9447972]         [-5184.94477792]
[ 1555.54536625]        [ 1555.54254362]        [ 1555.5453638]
[-402.62443474]         [-402.62539068]         [-402.62443718]
[ 17746.15769322]       [ 17746.15458093]       [ 17746.15769074]
[-5512.94925026]        [-5512.94980649]        [-5512.94925267]
[-2202.8589276]         [-2202.86226244]        [-2202.85893056]
[-5549.05250407]        [-5549.05416936]        [-5549.05250669]
[-1675.87329493]        [-1675.87995809]        [-1675.87329255]
[-5274.27756529]        [-5274.28093377]        [-5274.2775701]
[-5424.10246845]        [-5424.10658526]        [-5424.10247326]
[-1014.70864363]        [-1014.71145066]        [-1014.70864845]
[ 12936.59360437]       [ 12936.59168749]       [ 12936.59359954]
[ 2912.71566077]        [ 2912.71282628]        [ 2912.71565599]
[ 6489.36648506]        [ 6489.36538259]        [ 6489.36648021]
[ 12025.06991281]       [ 12025.07040848]       [ 12025.06990358]
[ 17026.57841531]       [ 17026.56827742]       [ 17026.57841044]
[ 2220.1852193]         [ 2220.18531961]        [ 2220.18521579]
[-2886.39219026]        [-2886.39015388]        [-2886.39219394]
[-18393.24573629]       [-18393.25888463]       [-18393.24573872]
[-17591.33051471]       [-17591.32838012]       [-17591.33051834]
[-3947.18545848]        [-3947.17487999]        [-3947.18546459]
[ 7707.05472816]        [ 7707.05577227]        [ 7707.0547217]
[ 4280.72039079]        [ 4280.72338194]        [ 4280.72038435]
[-3137.48835901]        [-3137.48480197]        [-3137.48836531]
[ 6693.47303443]        [ 6693.46528167]        [ 6693.47302811]
[-13936.14265517]       [-13936.14329336]       [-13936.14267094]
[ 2684.29594641]        [ 2684.29859601]        [ 2684.29594183]
[-2193.61036078]        [-2193.63086307]        [-2193.610366]
[-10139.10424848]       [-10139.11905454]       [-10139.10426049]
[ 4475.11569903]        [ 4475.12288711]        [ 4475.11569421]
[-3037.71857269]        [-3037.72118246]        [-3037.71857265]
[-5538.71349798]        [-5538.71654224]        [-5538.71349794]
[ 8008.38521357]        [ 8008.39092739]        [ 8008.38521361]
[-1433.43859633]        [-1433.44181824]        [-1433.43859629]
[ 4212.47144667]        [ 4212.47368097]        [ 4212.47144686]
[ 19688.24263706]       [ 19688.2451694]        [ 19688.2426368]
[ 104.13434091]         [ 104.13434349]         [ 104.13434091]
[-654.02451175]         [-654.02493111]         [-654.02451174]
[-2522.8642551]         [-2522.88694451]        [-2522.86424254]
[-5011.20385919]        [-5011.22742915]        [-5011.20384655]
[-13285.64644021]       [-13285.66951459]       [-13285.64642763]
[-4254.86406891]        [-4254.88695873]        [-4254.86405637]
[-2477.42063206]        [-2477.43501057]        [-2477.42061727]
[ 0.]                   [  1.23691279e-10]      [ 0.]
[-92.79470071]          [-92.79467095]          [-92.79470071]
[ 2383.66211583]        [ 2383.66209637]        [ 2383.66211583]
[-10725.22892185]       [-10725.22889937]       [-10725.22892185]
[ 234.77560283]         [ 234.77560254]         [ 234.77560283]
[ 4739.22119578]        [ 4739.22121432]        [ 4739.22119578]
[ 43640.05854156]       [ 43640.05848841]       [ 43640.05854157]
[ 2592.3866707]         [ 2592.38671547]        [ 2592.3866707]
[-25130.02819215]       [-25130.05501178]       [-25130.02819515]
[ 4966.82173096]        [ 4966.7946407]         [ 4966.82172795]
[ 14232.97930665]       [ 14232.9529959]        [ 14232.97930363]
[-21621.77202422]       [-21621.79840459]       [-21621.7720272]
[ 9917.80960029]        [ 9917.80960571]        [ 9917.80960029]
[ 1355.79191536]        [ 1355.79198092]        [ 1355.79191536]
[-27218.44185748]       [-27218.46880642]       [-27218.44185719]
[-27218.04184348]       [-27218.06875423]       [-27218.04184318]
[ 23482.80743869]       [ 23482.78043029]       [ 23482.80743898]
[ 3401.67707434]        [ 3401.65134677]        [ 3401.67707463]
[ 3030.36383274]        [ 3030.36384909]        [ 3030.36383274]
[-30590.61847724]       [-30590.63933424]       [-30590.61847706]
[-28818.3942685]        [-28818.41520495]       [-28818.39426833]
[-25115.73726772]       [-25115.7580278]        [-25115.73726753]
[ 77174.61695995]       [ 77174.59548773]       [ 77174.61696016]
[-20201.86613672]       [-20201.88871113]       [-20201.86613657]
[ 51908.53292209]       [ 51908.53446495]       [ 51908.53292207]
[ 7710.71327865]        [ 7710.71324194]        [ 7710.71327865]
[-16206.9785119]        [-16206.97851993]       [-16206.9785119]
``````

As you can see normal equation, least squares and np.linalg.solve tool methods give to some extent different results. The question is why these three approaches gives noticeably different results and which method gives more efficient and more accurate result?

Assumption:
Results of Normal equation method and results of np.linalg.solve are very close to each other. And results of np.linalg.lstsq differ from both of them. Since normal equation uses inverse we do not expect very accurate results of it and therefore results of np.linalg.solve tool also. Seem to be that better results are given by np.linalg.lstsq.

Note: Under term efficiency I meant extent of precision loss due to possible use of matrix inversion or different operations. Under accuracy I meant how close these method's solutions to real coefficients. So basically I wanted to know wich of these methods is closer to real model.

DB2.csv is available on DropBox: DB2.csv

Full Python code is available on DropBox: Full code

### Don't calculate matrix inverse to solve linear systems

The professional algorithms don't solve for the matrix inverse. It's slow and introduces unnecessary error. It's not a disaster for small systems, but why do something suboptimal?

Basically anytime you see the math written as:

``````x = A^-1 * b
``````

``````x = np.linalg.solve(A, b)
``````XtX_lamb = X.T.dot(X) + lamb * IdentityMatrix