M Sach M Sach - 3 months ago 13x
Java Question

Encapsulation vs Abstraction?

Here are the brief definitions of encapsulation and abstraction.


The process of abstraction in Java is used to hide certain details and
only show the essential features of the object. In other words,
it deals with the outside view of an object (interface). The only good example i see for this across different sites is


Its basically about hiding the state of object with the help of
modifiers like private,public,protected etc. we expose the state thru
public methods only if require.

What we achieve with modifiers like
also hides unnecessary details from out side world which is nothing but also a abstraction concept

So, from above explanation looks like encapsulation is a part of abstraction or we can say it's a subset of abstraction. But why then encapsulation term is invented when we could deal it with abstraction only? I am sure there should be some major difference which distinguishes them but most of material on net says almost same thing for both of them.

Though this question has been raised on this forum earlier too but I am posting it again with specific doubts. Some replies also says abstraction is a concept and encapsulation is implementation. But I don't buy this - If it is true, then I can think these two different concepts are provided to confuse us.


Encapsulation is a strategy used as part of abstraction. Encapsulation refers to the state of objects - objects encapsulate their state and hide it from the outside; outside users of the class interact with it through its methods, but cannot access the classes state directly. So the class abstracts away the implementation details related to its state.

Abstraction is a more generic term, it can also be achieved by (amongst others) subclassing. For example, the interface List in the standard library is an abstraction for a sequence of items, indexed by their position, concrete examples of a List are an ArrayList or a LinkedList. Code that interacts with a List abstracts over the detail of which kind of a list it is using.

Abstraction is often not possible without hiding underlying state by encapsulation - if a class exposes its internal state, it can't change its inner workings, and thus cannot be abstracted.