Alasdair Alasdair - 1 month ago 12
Python Question

Django URLs error: view must be a callable or a list/tuple in the case of include()

After upgrading to Django 1.10, I get the error:

TypeError: view must be a callable or a list/tuple in the case of include().


My urls.py is as follows:

urlpatterns = [
url(r'^$', 'myapp.views.home'),
url(r'^contact/$', 'myapp.views.contact'),
url(r'^login/$', 'django.contrib.auth.views.login'),
]


The full traceback is:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/utils/autoreload.py", line 226, in wrapper
fn(*args, **kwargs)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/management/commands/runserver.py", line 121, in inner_run
self.check(display_num_errors=True)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/management/base.py", line 385, in check
include_deployment_checks=include_deployment_checks,
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/management/base.py", line 372, in _run_checks
return checks.run_checks(**kwargs)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/checks/registry.py", line 81, in run_checks
new_errors = check(app_configs=app_configs)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/checks/urls.py", line 14, in check_url_config
return check_resolver(resolver)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/core/checks/urls.py", line 24, in check_resolver
for pattern in resolver.url_patterns:
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/utils/functional.py", line 35, in __get__
res = instance.__dict__[self.name] = self.func(instance)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/urls/resolvers.py", line 310, in url_patterns
patterns = getattr(self.urlconf_module, "urlpatterns", self.urlconf_module)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/utils/functional.py", line 35, in __get__
res = instance.__dict__[self.name] = self.func(instance)
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/urls/resolvers.py", line 303, in urlconf_module
return import_module(self.urlconf_name)
File "/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/importlib/__init__.py", line 37, in import_module
__import__(name)
File "/Users/alasdair/dev/urlproject/urlproject/urls.py", line 28, in <module>
url(r'^$', 'myapp.views.home'),
File "/Users/alasdair/.virtualenvs/django110/lib/python2.7/site-packages/django/conf/urls/__init__.py", line 85, in url
raise TypeError('view must be a callable or a list/tuple in the case of include().')
TypeError: view must be a callable or a list/tuple in the case of include().

Answer

Django 1.10 no longer allows you to specify views as a string (e.g. 'myapp.views.home') in your URL patterns.

The solution is to update your urls.py to include the view callable. This means that you have to import the view in your urls.py. If your URL patterns don't have names, then now is a good time to add one, because reversing with the dotted python path no longer works.

from django.contrib.auth.views import login
from myapp.views import home, contact

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^$', home, name='home'),
    url(r'^contact/$', contact, name='contact'),
    url(r'^login/$', login, name='login'),
]

If there are many views, then importing them individually can be inconvenient. An alternative is to import the views module from your app.

from django.contrib.auth import views as auth_views
from myapp import views as myapp_views

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^$', myapp_views.home, name='home'),
    url(r'^contact/$', myapp_views.contact, name='contact'),
    url(r'^login/$', auth_views.login, name='login'),
]

Note that we have used as myapp_views and as auth_views, which allows us to import the views.py from multiple apps without them clashing.

See the Django URL dispatcher docs for more information about urlpatterns.

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