Maybe it's not the answer you want, but as everybody mentioned, the compiler is a JS file, so, your options are the options of executing a JS file.
In Windows, there are 2 obvious ones, Node, and Windows Script Host.
You know about node already, the other option is a component that comes with all versions of Windows (I think), you can do it like this:
cscript path/to/tsc.js source-file.ts
You can see all compiler options by just:
On Linux I assume you should be able to use (in addition to node):
Update: Another answer suggests the compiler API is only compatible with node and Windows Script Host (cscript tool), so, if correct, then on Linux you'll need Node to compile TypeScript.
If you are looking for something like
apt get tsc (or whatever the Linux/Mac package managers are like), I think there isn't.
I remember reading somewhere that the I/O is optimized for Node and Windows Script Host, so, if you have problems with options, you'll probably end up with Node if seeking platform independence.
Update: Another answer here confirms the same about compatibility.