aldo_tapia - 1 year ago 59
R Question

# Linear fit without slope in r

I want to fit a linear model with no slope and extract information of it. My objective is to know which is the best y-intercept for an horizontal line in a data set and also evaluate $R^{2}$ from derived linear fit to identify if y has a particular behavior (x is date). I've using

`range`
to evaluate behavior, but I'm looking for an index without unit.

Removing y-intercept:

``````X <- 1:10

Y <- 2:11

lm1 <- lm(Y~X + 0, data = data.frame(X=X,Y=Y)) # y-intercept remove opt 1

lm1 <- lm(Y~X - 1, data = data.frame(X=X,Y=Y)) # y-intercept remove opt 2

lm1 <- lm(Y~0 + X, data = data.frame(X=X,Y=Y)) # y-intercept remove opt 3

lm1\$coefficients
X
1.142857

summary(lm1)\$r.squared
[1] 0.9957567
``````

All the
`lm`
showed before, has $R^{2}$. But, if I evaluate:

``````lm2 <- lm(Y~1, data = data.frame(X=X,Y=Y))

lm2\$coefficients
(Intercept)
6.5

summary(lm2)\$r.squared
[1] 0
``````

There is a way to calculate $R^{2}$ out of
`lm`
function or calculate an index to identify how much y is represented by an horizontal line?

Let `lmObject` be your linear model returned by `lm` (called with `y = TRUE` to return `y`).

• If your model has intercept, then R-squared is computed as

``````with(lmObject, 1 - c(crossprod(residuals) / crossprod(y - mean(y))) )
``````
• If your model does not have an intercept, then R-squared is computed as

``````with(lmObject, 1 - c(crossprod(residuals) / crossprod(y)) )
``````

Note, if your model is only an intercept (so it is certainly from the 1st case above), you have

``````residuals = y - mean(y)
``````

thus R-squared is always `1 - 1 = 0`.

In regression analysis, it is always recommended to include intercept in the model to get unbiased estimate. A model with intercept only is the NULL model. Any other model is compared with this NULL model for further analysis of variance.

A note. The value / quantity you want has nothing to do with regression. You can simply compute it as

``````c(crossprod(Y - mean(Y)) / crossprod(Y))  ## `Y` is your data
#[1] 0.1633663
``````

Alternatively, use

``````(length(Y) - 1) * var(Y) / c(crossprod(Y))
#[1] 0.1633663
``````
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