I just saw a thing about Google's V8 JS engine that said it's greatly optimized for 32 bit numbers
This only means that V8 does internally store those numbers as integers when it can deduce that they will stay in the respective range. This is common for counters or array indices, for example.
Is there a way to ensure the quotient of two (not gigantic) integers is under 32 bits in length?
No - all arithmetic operations are carried out as if they were 64 bit floating point numbers (like all numbers in JS). They only thing you can do is to truncate the result back to a 32 bit integer. You'll use the bitwise right shift operator for that which internally casts its operands to integers:
var q = (a / b) >>> 0;