knorv knorv - 3 months ago 7
Java Question

Valid Java code that is NOT valid Groovy code?

Most Java code is also syntactically valid Groovy code. However, there are a few exceptions which leads me to my question:

Which constructs/features in Java are syntactically invalid in Groovy? Please provide concrete examples of Java code (Java 1.6) that is NOT valid Groovy code (Groovy 1.6).


So far we've got five examples of syntactically valid Java code that is not valid Groovy code:

  1. Array initializations

  2. Inner classes

  3. def
    is a keyword in Groovy, but not in Java

  4. "$$"
    -strings - parsed as an invalid
    s in Groovy

  5. Non-static initialization blocks
    -- class Foo { Integer x; { x = 1; } }

Is this the complete list? Any further examples?

Update #1: I've started a bounty to bump this question. The bounty will be granted to the person who provides the most comprehensive list of examples. So far we've uncovered five examples, but I'm sure there a quite some more out there. So keep them coming!


Here is a list of items that are valid Java 6, but not valid Groovy 1.6. This isn't a complete list, but I think it covers most of the cases.

(By the way, I think you should note that non-static initialization blocks DO work in Groovy.)

Any inner class declaration

including static,

public class Outer{
  static class Inner{}


public class Outer{
  class Inner{}

local classes,

public class Outer{
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    class Local{}  

and anonymous classes

java.util.EventListener listener=new java.util.EventListener(){};

Using Groovy keywords as variables

int def;
int in;
int threadsafe;
int as;

Array initialization

String[] stuff=new String[]{"string"};
int[] array={1,2,3};

Using dollar signs in strings where what follows isn't a valid expression

String s="$$";
String s="$def";
String s="$enum";
String s="$;";
String s="$\\";

More than one initializer in a for loop

for (int i=0, j=0; i < 5; i++) {}

More than one increment in a for loop

int j=0;
for (int i=0; i < 5; i++,j++) {}

Breaking up some expressions using newlines

int a= 2 
/ 2 

Ending switch with a case that has no body

  case 1:

Having a default in a switch with no body

Applies in both cases where default is at the end

int a=0;

or somewhere in the middle

    case 1:

Annotations with lists


Native method declaration

public native int nativeMethod();

Class per enum

public enum JavaEnum{
    public String getSymbol(){ return "+"; }
  abstract String getSymbol();

Do loop