godaygo - 8 months ago 30

Python Question

**Question**: What does Python do under the hood when it sees this kind of expression?

`sum(sum(i) for j in arr for i in j)`

generator expressions are implemented using a function scope

Not to be verbose :) I have an array with the following layout (

`>>> arr = [`

[[1,2,3], [4,5,6]],

[[7,8,9],[10,11,12]]

]

I try to sum all elements of

`arr`

`>>> sum(sum(i) for i in j for j in arr)`

NameError: name 'j' is not defined

It raises

`NameError`

`UnboundLocalError: local variable 'j' referenced before assignment`

`>>> gen = (j for j in arr)`

>>> sum(sum(i) for i in gen)

TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'list'

But it raises

`TypeError`

I catch the idea. Thanks @vaultah for some insight. In this case

`j`

`>>> sum(sum(i) for i in j for j in arr) # NameError`

that's why I get this weird

`NameError`

And @Eric answer shows that:

`>>> sum(sum(i) for j in arr for i in j)`

is equivalent to:

`>>> def __gen(arr):`

for j in arr:

for i in j:

yield sum(i)

>>> sum(__gen(arr))

Answer

Whether it is a generator or a list comprehension, the comprehension nesting is the same. It is easier to see what is going on with a list comprehension.

Given:

```
>>> arr
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]], [[7, 8, 9], [10, 11, 12]]]
```

You can flatten the List of Lists on Ints by 1 level using a nested list comprehension (or generator):

```
>>> [e for sl in arr for e in sl]
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9], [10, 11, 12]]
```

You can flatten completely, given that structure, by nesting again (example only; there are better ways to flatten a deeply nested list):

```
>>> [e2 for sl2 in [e for sl in arr for e in sl] for e2 in sl2]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]
```

Since `sum`

takes an iterable, the second flattening is not necessary in your example:

```
>>> [sum(e) for sl in arr for e in sl]
[6, 15, 24, 33] # sum of those is 78...
```

The order of the elements in a nested list comprehension (or generator) just is the syntax of nesting; the inner element is the element with higher priority.

To unroll the list comprehension into nested loops, the *inner* section becomes the higher priority *outer* loop:

```
for sl in arr:
for sl2 in sl:
for e in sl2:
# now you have each int in the LoLoInts...
# you could use yield e for a generator here
```

Your final question: Why do you get a `TypeError`

with `gen = (j for j in arr)`

?

That generator expression does nothing. Example:

```
>>> [j for j in arr]
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]], [[7, 8, 9], [10, 11, 12]]]
>>> [j for j in arr] == arr
True
```

So the expression `[x for x in arr]`

just returns `arr`

.

And `sum`

does not know how to add arr either:

```
>>> sum(arr)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'list'
```

Since `gen`

in your example is returning the same data structure, that is your error.

To fix it:

```
>>> gen=(e for sl in arr for e in sl)
>>> sum(sum(li) for li in gen)
78
```