In Ubuntu, we can select the output device of audio in sound preferences. But now I want to write a shell script, so I need to select the output device from the commandline.
You can first view your current default audio device by typing:
you can view all your devices.
And with this command
echo "set-default-sink alsa_output.Headset" | pacmd
you can set the default device.
But I found a much better source for this problem and a included little shell script for this problem here http://ubuntuforums.org/archive/index.php/t-1370383.html