geoffs3310 geoffs3310 - 7 months ago 54
PHP Question

CakePHP find method with JOIN

Hi,

I need to do the following query using the CakePHP

find
method:

SELECT *
FROM `messages`
INNER JOIN users ON messages.from = users.id
WHERE messages.to = 4
ORDER BY messages.datetime DESC


Basically I have:


  • messages
    table with a
    Message
    model

  • users
    table with
    User
    model



and want to retrieve information from both tables in one query. The
users.id
field is the same as the
messages.from
field, so that's what the join is on.

I am doing it in my
MessagesController
so it would need to be something like:

$this->Message->find();


Thanks

Answer

There are two main ways that you can do this. One of them is the standard CakePHP way, and the other is using a custom join.

It's worth pointing out that this advice is for CakePHP 2.x, not 3.x.

The CakePHP Way

You would create a relationship with your User model and Messages Model, and use the containable behavior:

class User extends AppModel {
    public $actsAs = array('Containable');
    public $hasMany = array('Message');
}

class Message extends AppModel {
    public $actsAs = array('Containable');
    public $belongsTo = array('User');
}

You need to change the messages.from column to be messages.user_id so that cake can automagically associate the records for you.

Then you can do this from the messages controller:

$this->Message->find('all', array(
    'contain' => array('User')
    'conditions' => array(
        'Message.to' => 4
    ),
    'order' => 'Message.datetime DESC'
));

The (other) CakePHP way

I recommend using the first method, because it will save you a lot of time and work. The first method also does the groundwork of setting up a relationship which can be used for any number of other find calls and conditions besides the one you need now. However, cakePHP does support a syntax for defining your own joins. It would be done like this, from the MessagesController:

$this->Message->find('all', array(
    'joins' => array(
        array(
            'table' => 'users',
            'alias' => 'UserJoin',
            'type' => 'INNER',
            'conditions' => array(
                'UserJoin.id = Message.from'
            )
        )
    ),
    'conditions' => array(
        'Message.to' => 4
    ),
    'fields' => array('UserJoin.*', 'Message.*'),
    'order' => 'Message.datetime DESC'
));

Note, I've left the field name messages.from the same as your current table in this example.

Using two relationships to the same model

Here is how you can do the first example using two relationships to the same model:

class User extends AppModel {
    public $actsAs = array('Containable');
    public $hasMany = array(
        'MessagesSent' => array(
            'className'  => 'Message',
            'foreignKey' => 'from'
         )
    );
    public $belongsTo = array(
        'MessagesReceived' => array(
            'className'  => 'Message',
            'foreignKey' => 'to'
         )
    );
}

class Message extends AppModel {
    public $actsAs = array('Containable');
    public $belongsTo = array(
        'UserFrom' => array(
            'className'  => 'User',
            'foreignKey' => 'from'
        )
    );
    public $hasMany = array(
        'UserTo' => array(
            'className'  => 'User',
            'foreignKey' => 'to'
        )
    );
}

Now you can do your find call like this:

$this->Message->find('all', array(
    'contain' => array('UserFrom')
    'conditions' => array(
        'Message.to' => 4
    ),
    'order' => 'Message.datetime DESC'
));
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