Module File was created by an older version of the compiler; rebuild Alamofire and try again: .../DerivedData/Build/Products/Debug-iPhones...
Are you using the right version of xcodebuild? What do you see when you run xcode-select -p? It should be pointed at Xcode 7 if you want to use the frameworks in Xcode 7.
Remove all the derive data
rm -rf ~/Library/Developer/Xcode/DerivedData/ && carthage build
Also, When you use
carthage update without --no-use-binaries option then it downloads the pre built frameworks which may be built using the old version of xcodebuild.
Alternative way is to use
carthage update --no-use-binaries. This way it will compile all the frameworks with the latest Xcode build installed on your Mac.