What's the standard behavior of TCP/IP protocol stack when a computer which we are sending data to suddenly changed its IP address? When this happens, the ARP table in our system is out of date, but the entry for this IP is not timed out?
Is there a way to discover the new IP-mac mapping or we simply drop the queued data and return an error?
Assume a TCP connection between A and B. A's IP address suddenly changes.
From B's point of view, what happens is straightforward: B continues to send its data to A's old IP address. There are two possibilities:
SYNflags set) and they don't match any existing TCP connection known to C. C will respond with
RSTpackets, and B will promptly return a "Connection reset by peer" error on the socket.
Either way, the TCP connection is broken and cannot be recovered. Furthermore, there is absolutely nothing either A or B could do about it. A simply isn't going to be able to receive (or send) any more traffic using its old IP address. It is impossible to achieve any further communication on this TCP connection.
From A's perspective it's a little bit different. After A's IP address is changed it ends up in a situation where it has a socket that is bound to a local IP address and port that doesn't exist on the local system anymore. This is normally not allowed (you can't call
bind() to bind to an IP address that is not a valid local IP address for the system) but it has come to pass anyway. The TCP/IP standard doesn't say what should be done in this case, but actual behaviour is that A would invalidate the socket immediately and return some kind of error to the application without delay.
In conclusion: A detects the problem and the connection is immediately broken, while it might take some time for B to detect the problem and return an error.
As for the ARP table, I am not sure why you are bringing that up, since that's at a lower layer (the data link layer) and doesn't really have much to do with what happens at the IP (much less TCP) layer. But, yes, the ARP tables of nodes on the same local network as A (such as a local router) now have a stale entry for A's old IP address. They'll gain a new valid entry for A's new IP address soon enough though (the first time they try to send a packet to this IP address) so it's not a problem. The stale entry could cause traffic for the old IP address to be misdirected at A, but if some other node picks up A's old IP address then gratuitous ARPs will take care of that, too.
Finally, the question "Is there a way to discover the new IP-mac mapping or we simply drop the queued data and return an error?" doesn't make sense. Sure there is a way to discover new IP-mac mappings: it's called ARP. That's ARP's sole function. But it has nothing to do with queued data, which is a concept that only has meaning two or more layers up the protocol stack.
In a comment you clarified that you are talking about the case where A and B are on the same local network as each other, but this doesn't make any difference to the answer. It's the same whether A and B are on the same local network or whether they are on remote networks.