lstipakov lstipakov - 3 months ago 21
C++ Question

Capturing packets on loopback

This code works perfectly fine on Ubuntu 16.04 and prints correct value (ETHERTYPE_IP) when I toss around UDP bytes via loopback interface:

#include <pcap.h>
#include <iostream>
#include <net/ethernet.h>

int main(int argc,char **argv)
{
char errbuf[PCAP_ERRBUF_SIZE];
auto pcap = pcap_open_live("lo0", BUFSIZ, 0, 1000, errbuf);

pcap_loop(pcap,0, [] (u_char *self, const struct pcap_pkthdr *header,
const u_char *packet) {
auto eth = (struct ether_header *) packet;
auto eth_type = ntohs(eth->ether_type);
std::cout << "eth_type: " << std::hex << eth_type << std::endl;
}, nullptr);

return 0;
}


netcat:

➜ ~ nc -uv -l 54321
Listening on [0.0.0.0] (family 0, port 54321)

➜ ~ nc -4u localhost 54321
hello


Program output:

➜ ~ sudo ./a.out
eth_type: 800


However on OS X 10.11.5 it prints eth_type: 4011. Interesting that it works fine with en1 adapter.

Why there is such a difference between loopback and non-loopback adapters and what is the correct way to capture packets on both?

Update:
tcpdump also works:

➜ ~ sudo tcpdump -i lo0
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on lo0, link-type NULL (BSD loopback), capture size 262144 bytes
15:09:00.160664 IP localhost.54321 > localhost.63543: UDP, length 4

Answer

As the link type is not ethernet, the header does not contain suitable data for ether_header.

Add this code after fetching the handle with pcap_open_live to see the link-layer header type:

if (pcap_datalink(pcap) != DLT_EN10MB) {
    fprintf(stderr, "Device doesn't provide Ethernet headers - link type was %d\n", pcap_datalink(pcap));
    return 1;
}

Running this indicates that the linktype value for lo0 is 0, DLT_NULL. The documentation states that this means "BSD loopback encapsulation; the link layer header is a 4-byte field, in host byte order, containing a PF_ value from socket.h for the network-layer protocol of the packet."

Indeed, when I look at the the first 4 bytes of the ether_dhost field I see the value 2, corresponding to PF_INET. In the end, this doesn't help you much if you are trying to distinguish UDP packets.

You can find more documentation here: http://www.tcpdump.org/linktypes.html