Say I'm collaborating with someone via a git repository, and there is a particular file that I never want to accept any external changes to.
Is there any way for me to set up my local repo to not complain about a conflicted merge every time I git pull? I'd like to always select my local version when merging this file.
On the specific instance of a config file, I would agree with Ron's answer:
a config should be "private" to your workspace (hence "ignored", as in "declared in a
You may have a config file template with tokenized values in it, and a script transforming that
config.template file into a private (and ignored) config file.
However, that specific remark does not answer what is a broader more general question, i.e. your question(!):
How do I tell git to always select my local version for conflicted merges on a specific file ? (for any file or group of file)
This kind of merge is a "copy merge", in which you will always copy 'ours' or 'theirs' version of a file whenever there is a conflict.
(as Brian Vandenberg notes in the comments, '
ours' and '
theirs' are here used for a merge.
They are reversed for a rebase: see "
Why is the meaning of “ours” and “theirs” reversed with git-svn", which uses a rebase, "
git rebase, keeping track of 'local' and 'remote'")
For "a file" (a file in general, not speaking of a "config" file, since it is a bad example), you would achieve that with a custom script called through merges.
Git will call that script because you will have define a gitattributes value, which defines a custom merge driver.
The "custom merge driver" is, in this case, a very simple script which basically will keep unchanged the current version, hence allowing you to always select your local version.
Let's test that in a simple scenario, with a msysgit 1.6.3 on Windows, in a mere DOS session:
cd f:\prog\git\test mkdir copyMerge\dirWithConflicts mkdir copyMerge\dirWithCopyMerge cd copyMerge git init Initialized empty Git repository in F:/prog/git/test/copyMerge/.git/
Now, let's make two files, which will both have conflicts, but which will be merged differently.
echo a > dirWithConflicts\a.txt echo b > dirWithCopyMerge\b.txt git add -A git commit -m "first commit with 2 directories and 2 files" [master (root-commit) 0adaf8e] first commit with 2 directories and 2 files
We will introduce a "conflict" in the content of both those files in two different git branches:
git checkout -b myBranch Switched to a new branch 'myBranch' echo myLineForA >> dirWithConflicts\a.txt echo myLineForB >> dirWithCopyMerge\b.txt git add -A git commit -m "add modification in myBranch" [myBranch 97eac61] add modification in myBranch git checkout master Switched to branch 'master' git checkout -b hisBranch Switched to a new branch 'hisBranch' echo hisLineForA >> dirWithConflicts\a.txt echo hisLineForB >> dirWithCopyMerge\b.txt git add -A git commit -m "add modification in hisBranch" [hisBranch 658c31c] add modification in hisBranch
Now, let's try to merge "hisBranch" upon "myBranch", with:
dirWithCopyMerge\b.txtwhere I always want to keep my version of
Since the merge occurs in '
MyBranch', we will switch back to it, and add the '
gitattributes' directives which will customize the merge behavior.
git checkout myBranch Switched to branch 'myBranch' echo b.txt merge=keepMine > dirWithCopyMerge\.gitattributes git config merge.keepMine.name "always keep mine during merge" git config merge.keepMine.driver "keepMine.sh %O %A %B" git add -A git commit -m "prepare myBranch with .gitattributes merge strategy" [myBranch ec202aa] prepare myBranch with .gitattributes merge strategy
We have a
.gitattributes file defined in the
dirWithCopyMerge directory (defined only in the branch where the merge will occurs:
myBranch), and we have a
.git\config file which now contains a merge driver.
[merge "keepMine"] name = always keep mine during merge driver = keepMine.sh %O %A %B
If you do not yet define keepMine.sh, and launch the merge anyway, here is what you get.
git merge hisBranch sh: keepMine.sh: command not found fatal: Failed to execute internal merge git st # On branch myBranch # Changed but not updated: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: dirWithConflicts/a.txt # no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") type dirWithConflicts\a.txt a <<<<<<< HEAD:dirWithConflicts/a.txt myLineForA ======= hisLineForA >>>>>>> hisBranch:dirWithConflicts/a.txt
That is fine:
a.txtis ready to be merged and has conflict in it
b.txtis still untouched, since the merge driver is supposed to take care of it (due to the directive in the
.gitattributesfile in its directory).
keepMine.sh anywhere in your
$PATH for our Unix friend. I do both of course: I have an Ubuntu session in a VirtualBox session)
# I want to keep MY version when there is a conflict # Nothing to do: %A (the second parameter) already contains my version # Just indicate the merge has been successfully "resolved" with the exit status exit 0
(that was one simple merge driver ;) )
(If you wanted to keep the other version, just add before the
exit 0 line:
cp -f $3 $2.
That's it. You merge driver would aways keep the version coming from the other branch, overriding any local change)
Now, let's retry the merge from the beginning:
git reset --hard HEAD is now at ec202aa prepare myBranch with .gitattributes merge strategy git merge hisBranch Auto-merging dirWithConflicts/a.txt CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in dirWithConflicts/a.txt Auto-merging dirWithCopyMerge/b.txt Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
The merge fails... only for a.txt.
Edit a.txt and leave the line from 'hisBranch', then:
git add -A git commit -m "resolve a.txt by accepting hisBranch version" [myBranch 77bc81f] resolve a.txt by accepting hisBranch version
Let's check that b.txt has been preserved during this merge
type dirWithCopyMerge\b.txt b myLineForB
The last commit does represent the full merge:
git show -v 77bc81f5e commit 77bc81f5ed585f90fc1ca5e2e1ddef24a6913a1d Merge: ec202aa 658c31c git merge hisBranch Already up-to-date.
(The line beginning with Merge does prove that)
Consider you can define, combine and/or overwrite merge driver, as Git will:
<dir>/.gitattributes(which is in the same directory as the path in question): will prevail upon the other
.gitattributes(which is in the parent directory), will only set directives if not already set
$GIT_DIR/info/attributes. This file is used to override the in-tree settings. It will overwrite
By "combining", I mean "aggregate" multiple merge driver.
Nick Green tries, in the comments, to actually combine merge drivers: see "Merge pom's via python git driver".
However, as mentioned in his other question, it only works in case of conflicts (concurrent modification in both branches).